The Relationship between Existential Subjectivity and PhilosophyJuly 1, 2021
Jean-Paul Sartre, “Existentialists have in common that only existence must precede essence, or, if you will, act from subjectivity.” he wrote.
However, Descartes had formulated the necessity of subjectivity as a necessary starting point by expressing it as “I think, I am, I am”; thus, by boldly saying “I”, he established a rational and methodical attempt to make us the “master and owner of nature” against all kinds of past and future enlightenment enmity.
Undoubtedly, the world in which our being persists is a qualitative world (a world of good and evil, of meanings and values); therefore, it is not possible to obtain fully objective and complete information. On the other hand, the world you know scientifically is a quantitative world (a world of laws, acts, and abstract relations); There is no room for subjectivity here. However, subjectivity cannot be excluded from all objective frameworks, testimonies, and all relations. Likewise, being cannot be represented outside of all objectifications, discourses, and all philosophies. However, the thinker who sees the most perfect example of the wise philosopher in Socrates, “the highest human understanding of existence, is Kierkegaard, who was the fierce enemy of Hegel in particular and of rational philosophy in general.
Assuming we are able to enter this sublime stage of existence, called the “religious stage” by Kierkegaard (of which only Abraham can give an extraordinary example), Socrates, the father of philosophy, will raise us above the “aesthetic stage” and reach the apex of the “moral stage” of existence: it is the good and the bad. Kierkegaard, who distinguishes the stages of existence represented by the individuals he names, underlines the biggest difficulty that the general concept of existence encounters and collides with. For consciousness, existence is a phenomenon.According to Heidegger, author of Being and Time (Sein und Zeit), authentic being is nothing but a means of thinking about being (toward being), it is the condition that leads us to think about being that you can never reach. approached from the point of view, Thinking is the end of the individual himself, and beyond existence is only a means.
On the other hand, for philosophy, which takes not only the fact of existence but also the thoughts produced on this phenomenon as its subject, existence is an end, and thought is the best tool to achieve this. Apart from this, the answers of the great writers to the question of existence, which are fixed even though they are expressed in different ways, coincide with the opinions and ideas presented to the philosophers, just as knowledge makes sense only when combined with behavior, thought has meaning only in the case of existence. If we have to think as well as possible, it is to live better and to exist as much as possible, that is, to live more consciously (Descartes), more passionately (Kierkegaard), more humane (Kant, Comte), more dangerous (Nietzsche), more calmly (Leibniz).
All philosophy, from Aristotle to Epictetus, Montaigne, Descartes, and Leibniz through to Auguste Comte, affirms that thought is not an end but, in fact, the beginning of real being, owes nothing to the enchantment of nothingness and the dignity of the absolute. . Undoubtedly, the human being, wholly relative, takes his sublimity from this relativity and allows thought to apply itself and to discover the relationships that unite us on this Earth. But even Pascal, who admitted to being overwhelmed by the thought of death (“A little earth is thrown on your head at last, and it lasts forever”) and the worthlessness of existence (“What does it matter if a man has a little intelligence with regard to things?” admitted it: ” Even when the universe crushes him, man will be much nobler than the one who killed him, because he knows that he is dead… As a void, the universe contains me and swallows me like a tiny speck, but as a thought I understand it. No matter how limited and limited the resources of our knowledge and mind, the pleasure and pleasure of understanding saves us from the crisis of existence.