The relationship between philosophy and metaphysicsDecember 21, 2019
Metaphysics is thename given to Aristotle ‘s book, which he calls “the first philosophy, and questions neden the causes and basic principles of existence”.
Metaphysics, whose word meaning is öt beyond physics ”, deals with the first and last problems of philosophy such as being, god, spirit, immortality, not reality perceived by sensory organs.
It deals with the asıl actual existence ”,“ first causes and principles ”,“ the structure and formation of the universe and nature doğan. N What is the soul ?, “What are the relationships between the soul and the body ?, müdür Is the soul immortal? etc. tries to answer the questions.
Basic problems of metaphysics; problems related to being (ontology), problems related to the structure and formation of the universe (cosmology), problems related to god and spirit.
Problems with existence. What is being? and what are the basis? questions. Looking at the answers given to these questions, we can talk about two different views.
The view that assumes substance as the basis of being is called materialism, and the view that assumes that it is ide (ideal). According to the materialist view, there is no other reality apart from matter.
Thinking, design and spiritual events are also the product of matter. The idealist view places thought on the basis of existence and denies a world of objects independent of thought.
Cosmos means the universe. These problems are related to the structure and formation of the universe. There are three approaches to solving cosmological problems. These approaches; mechanist, teleological (theological) and theological (theological) universe consists of views.
According to the mechanist view, everything that happens in the universe is mechanically formed according to the principle of causality. The teleological view argues that everything in the universe emerges according to a specific plan and that all beings have a purpose to be achieved. “Teleology acknowledges that nature is arranged for a purpose and that the world is regulated for a number of prudent reasons. Ele
Anaxagoras (Anaxagoras, 500-428 BC), one of the first representatives of this view, said, mi Can a spontaneous sculpture be formed from some slime? Certainly can not occur. In order for a slime to become a sculpture, a sculptor needs to have a conscious and effective power in order to form a regular universe. ” According to him, this power is God. But according to Anaxagoras, this god is not creative, but constructive.
The theological view, however, sees everything that exists in the universe as a result of the will of God. Dür It is the view that everything in the world is arranged by God to serve human beings for human existence. He argues that the only being that cannot be thought of is that God is a necessary being and that the universe can be explained accordingly.
Problems of God and Spirit
In addition to these problems, metaphysics also deals with the existence of the soul, the soul-body relationship and the immortality of the soul.
In general, metaphysics arises from questions that one does not refrain from asking, and at the same time failing to give a complete and precise answer. Today, the structure of the universe still wants to know if there is a life after death. That is why there is a continuity of metaphysics.
There have also been oppositions to metaphysics that have always existed in the history of philosophy. The subjects of metaphysics consist of problems that cannot be perceived through sensation. Oppositions were also at this point. Some philosophers who argue that something that cannot be perceived by the senses cannot be known have opposed metaphysics. This opposition did not find enough support. Metaphysics still exists today.
Philosophy will exist as long as there are questions about existence, human place in the universe and values.