The Relationship between Philosophy and Philosophy of ReligionJune 29, 2021
Philosophy in the history of thought; It emerged as a criticism of religious and moral knowledge and beliefs.
On the other hand, philosophy and religion are not two opposite types of knowledge. Both of these types of knowledge try to explain and make sense of the human-universe relationship. Since these two types of knowledge have many similarities in the fields they work, it is quite natural for them to benefit from each other. Philosophy is about the structure of existence, religion is about eternity. Philosophy uses concepts to express the infinite, religion uses symbols.
If we need to define the philosophy of religion more clearly, we can say: “The philosophy of religion is to consider religion as philosophy, to think about religion and to have discussions.” But there is a problem arising from the structure of philosophy itself: each philosopher has his own way of thinking and understanding. As difficult as it is to define philosophy, it is also difficult to define the philosophy of religion, which is a sub-branch of philosophy. But considering a certain discipline that many philosophers have formed on certain subjects: “To philosophize about religion is to think and talk about the basic claims of religion in a rational, objective, comprehensive and consistent manner.” we can say.
A person who makes philosophy of religion should approach his subject “rationally”. In other words, he should base concepts such as “the existence of god” and “immortality of the soul” by trying to use the possibilities of his mind.
At the same time, the philosopher must deal with the subject of religion in a comprehensive way. He has to deal with all the historical, scientific and logical data on the subject while he is thinking about the problems of religion. He should even look at what the opposing discourses on the subject are.
It is also essential that there is a consistency between the views put forward by the philosopher. Pretty good criticism is needed to see the inconsistency in opinions.
In particular, in this and similar researches, instead of approaching religion in favor or against it, it should be essential to examine religion as it is and to approach it in an “objective” way.
The sole purpose of doing all this is to express, explain, integrate, integrate and evaluate the philosophical approach. Philosophy of religion is also a special step for serious research on religions. In this way, not everyone can sway their own free views and comments on religion.
We can list the problems that philosophy of religion deals with as follows:
a) Metaphysical and cosmological problems: The existence of God and the rational proofs put forward for or against this subject, the creation of the universe, the place and importance of man in the universe, the possibility of revelation, life after death and immortality of the soul…
b) Epistemological problems: The epistemological value of efforts to reach the knowledge of God from our knowledge of the universe, revelation and religious experience as a source of information, epistemological analysis and criticism of concepts such as believing, knowing, doubting, conjecture, close and similar concepts, verification and falsification of basic religious provisions. .
c) Criticism and examination of religious provisions in terms of language and logic, determination of the situation of the language of religion in terms of logic…
d) Relations of religion with morality, art and science, efforts to bring all human experiences into an organic integrity and to establish a new religious thinking system…
e) The meaning and importance of religious symbolism…