The Subject and Problems of the Philosophy of BeingJune 28, 2021
Human; He always wondered what it was, how it happened, where it came from, where it went, the earth, the sun, the stars and the universe. Man’s effort to understand and explain himself, the world and the universe requires first of all to think about them.
Different ideas have emerged with thinking, and a philosophical field has been formed towards existence. This philosophical field is called the philosophy of being. That is why the main problem in the emergence of philosophy is the subject of existence, and the philosophy of being, which can be defined as “dealing with the existing in terms of its existence”, is seen as the “first philosophy”.
In the first philosophy, problems such as the qualities, formation, essence and change of the existing are important issues whose answers are sought. Thinkers named as natural philosophers in the emergence of philosophy; tried to find the first and basic element of nature in some elements in nature such as water, earth, air and fire. This search for nature has also led to the formation of different ideas. Differences of opinion have been about the first causes of nature, its main substance, its change and formation.
Discussions on the first cause, main substance and beginning (arkhe) of existence have been the source of the debates on whether there is an unchanging aspect of existence. After the Arkhe discussions, discussions of substance and idea emerged with the meaning of “making a being that being”. The connection of the substance, the idea with the being; Various ideas have been put forward as to whether it exists in individual entities. The problem of existence has gradually started to be seen as a metaphysical problem that deals with the essence of the first causes and the remaining beings.
The ideas of arkhe and substance towards existence have been dealt with more as a problem of universals with theological (religious) effects. Universals are higher genus and species determinations of being. With the development of science, the factual side of existence has returned. Thus, the philosophy of being started to come to the fore as ontology. The effort of ontological explanation of existence has broken the bond of metaphysics with the factual field.
Today, although ontology and metaphysics are often used synonymously, there is a tendency to see ontology as a discipline related to factual entities and metaphysics as a discipline related to mental and ideal entities, from different perspectives. However, on the one hand, ontology is defined as an ontology that tries to explain the existing ones, and it is also expressed in the context of metaphysics, which tries to understand the truth behind the existing ones.
Regardless of the ontology or metaphysical meanings in the philosophy of existence, time and space (the area occupied by an object in space) must be associated with the entities in all of the ideas formed on existence. In the philosophy of existence, in order to explain what existence is, it is necessary to make a judgment with respect to time and space. This applies to factual and non-factual assets. A planet exists in a specific space and time. For those who believe in God, God is eternal and timeless (eternal and eternal).
20th century The problem that comes to the fore in the philosophy of ontology includes the problems of human existence. Issues such as human essence, existence and freedom; determines the content of today’s philosophy of being.
Among the questions that come to the fore in the philosophy of existence, where different views and assumptions about existence are gathered, the reality of existence, how and what the existence consists of, whether it has a purpose, and the meaning of human existence (human essence, existence and freedom) can be counted.
Also please see:
– The truth and knowledge of existence
– The nature of existence
– Is there purposefulness in the universe?
Compiled by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology Lecture Notes for Grade 1 “Introduction to Philosophy” and “Introduction to Sociology” (Ömer YILDIRIM); Other Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM), MEB Philosophy Textbook