The Thought Environment That Prepared Renaissance PhilosophyJune 28, 2021
17th century philosophy takes place on the western axis. The Renaissance first appeared in Italy and gave its first examples here. More than one factor is mentioned about the emergence of the Renaissance.
Translations from Islamic geography, geographical discoveries, economic activities and political movements can be shown as factors. The influence of science and philosophy, which started with the translation of Indian, Egyptian, Ancient Greek and Islamic sciences books into European languages; It has brought the mind to the forefront in the West. As a result of geographical discoveries, the use of the printing press has increased literacy. Again, with the effect of geographical discoveries, developments were seen in trade and social differentiations occurred in society with the change of production style. With the discovery of America, the resources obtained from the natives living there and the cheap labor provided by the colonization of Africa caused the West to interact culturally and economically with different geographies, and all the mentioned situations formed the philosophy of this period in Europe.
In this period, before the changes in the field of philosophy, science, art, religion, economy and as a result of these changes in the social life and cultural field are mentioned. Renaissance is a period in which mentality transformations are experienced on the one hand, and different management balances of social life are re-formed on the other. Against the changes in the Renaissance, the pressure of the church on the individual increased in the beginning, but this pressure weakened towards the 18th century. Again, in the philosophy of this period, it was seen that national consciousness began to form. 15-17. In order to better understand the philosophy of the 6th century BC, it is necessary to look at the philosophies of the 2nd century AD and the 2nd century AD 15th century.
Influence of Plato and Aristotle, which affected the entire history of philosophy, in 15-17. It is possible to see it closely in the philosophy of the 19th century. This effect manifests itself mostly in translations made on Islamic philosophy. Western geography, which has met with both the original and the new interpretation of the ancient Greek thought, develops rapidly within the framework of the ideas formed in these philosophies. Plato and Aristotle academies are established and their philosophies are focused on. This situation gives rise to the understanding of humanism that centers the human mind over time.
The fact that Christian and Islamic philosophies showed different characteristics as well as similar aspects in the 15th century AD enabled these philosophies to have different effects on the mentality that formed the Renaissance. In order to better understand the mentioned effect, it is necessary to look at the belief-mind problem that exists in them. In the beginning, there is the thought that reason and belief should be separated, only the religious truths are certain and reason should be used in order to understand the belief. This idea, which is mostly identified with Christian philosophy, has changed with the importance that Islamic philosophy attaches to the mind, that is, with the idea that there are necessarily mental truths besides religious truths. Towards the end of Christian philosophy, Thomas of Aquina’s thought that faith is about knowing God and reason is about knowing God’s creations; 15-17 of this change. It has provided a source for the philosophy of the century. 15-17. It would be wrong to see the philosophy of the century AD as the continuation of the philosophy of the 2nd and 15th centuries AD. Because 15-17. century philosophy is mostly based on the rejection of that period. Reason gradually became independent of faith and formed the characteristic of this period.
15-17. The philosophy of the 19th century is the transition period in which the break from the intellectual structure of the previous period began, but the traces of it are still visible. The first traces of change were seen in the field of art. Works that still attract great attention in many fields of art were created in that period and after. Great artists such as Cervantes (Servantes) and Dante (Dante) in literature, Shakespeare (Shakespeare) in theater, Leonardo da Vinci [Leonardo da Vinci] in painting, P. Brunelleschi (Burnoleski) in architecture, Michelangelo (Mikelancelo) in sculpture and painting has given. All these changes are other important effects that enabled the formation of the philosophy of this period.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Omer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Sociology Department 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook