The Truth and Knowledge of BeingJune 28, 2021
“Is there an asset?” The question of “the truth and knowledge of existence” is related to the way the existence is handled. The thoughts about the qualities of the being and the fact that the information about the being can meet the reality shape the answers given to this question.
Problems and opinions about what is meant by the concept of “being” and its content and reality are related to the field of ontology. Whether thought can reach existence and appropriate knowledge causes opinions and discussions about the truth (correct knowledge of reality). Thoughts about the nature of the entity and whether the information about the entity meets the reality shape the answers given to this question.
Heraclitus and Parmenides came to the fore with their views on what is (nature, reality) and how it is. Expressing that everything is in becoming and nothing can remain as it is, Heraclitus grounds this with Logos, the law of opposing forces. These thoughts “The only thing that does not change is change itself.” summarize with judgment. Everything that people see as “existing” is dependent on time, and existence transforms into non-existence or vice versa because it transforms into its opposite in constant becoming. Parmenides, on the other hand, is based on the argument that “existence cannot come from non-existence” and “cannot be non-existent”, based on the thesis that “being is one and identical with itself.” According to Parmenides, change can only be the illusory appearance of perceptions. Finally, “Being exists.” and “There is no non-existent.” reaches his mind.
Lao Tse, the founder of Taoism; He says that the existing ones are formed by naming the non-existent ones. Because of this situation, the essence of existence in Taoism is non-existence. One of the ancient Greek philosophers Gorgias , on the other hand, refers only to a meaning in language with the word “existence”. For this reason, he defends the view that there is no real equivalent, those that correspond are only individual objects of perception. Plato calls Gorgias the founder of the art of “rhetoric”.
While those who claim that there is no definite judgment about whether the existence exists or not are considered nihilists in general, every view that states that existence is real or ideal is accepted within the understanding of realism in philosophy. It is said that a certain knowledge of existence can be obtained in all realist thoughts. Intuition, reason or sense may have been taken as the center in the acceptance of existence as reality.
Compiled by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology Lecture Notes for Grade 1 “Introduction to Philosophy” and “Introduction to Sociology” (Ömer YILDIRIM); Other Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM), MEB Philosophy Textbook