The understanding of the philosophy of art and the elements of aestheticsJune 27, 2021
According to Herbart, the merging of aesthetics and morality, gaining a system integrity constitutes practical philosophy.
Art theories emerge from the application of aesthetics to phenomena. However, in practice there is absolutely no possibility of separating aesthetics from morality. Because aesthetic pleasure, morality is based on command, directing the person, controlling him. A person may feel proud of this situation as well as sadness. On the other hand, morality is commanding, while aesthetics requires taking an attitude towards a certain object in terms of taste. Herbart emphasizes the importance of psychology in the functioning of aesthetic judgments, arguing that practical philosophy should also benefit from psychology.
He argues that psychology should work with the mathematical method in order to be more productive. According to Herbart, metaphysics consists of four parts and each part contains a separate problem area. The first part is called method theory. In this section, the nature, structure and task of the method are investigated. The second part deals with the connections and changes between the types of beings in general, and this is called ontology. The subject of the third chapter is matter, space and time, which is called the theory of continuity. The fourth part is the ideology that investigates the nature of the human “I” and the source of his thoughts.
Herbart is of the opinion that the spirit is a focus where all thoughts gather. This shows that they are related to a single entity. Since the spirit is simple, it is immortal, it is a monad that perceives all simple qualities and has the characteristics of a design principle. Herbart, who took the concept of monad from Leibniz, developed it with a new interpretation according to his own understanding.