There is an autosaved version of this post that is newer than the current version. Show autosaved versionJune 28, 2021
The method of finding the field of existence of the phenomenology (phenomenology) developed by Husserl consists of two elements. One of them is called reduction (Reduktion) and the other is called reflection (Reflexion). Reduction serves to rediscover the object to be considered and to determine the path of investigation. Because this area of existence remains outside the scope of other sciences. This area is not in the middle or given, it has to be found, seen, revealed. The reduction method serves to separate the object from all its experimental elements and attributes.
Husserl calls this operation “bracketing”. Here, the shape, weight, dimensions, type, color, all visible features of the object are discarded and “bracketed”. With this method, two kinds of essence (Wesen/Essentia) are obtained, one transcendent and the other immanent. Transcendent essences are achieved by separating the object from its concrete reality, the qualities that depend on its being ‘here’, ‘there’. Intrinsic essences require a broader, more advanced reduction. In this process, all art products, social institutions, the universe of abstract beings, types of entities such as law, religion, psychological data, opinions, anything outside the scope of phenomenology are placed in brackets and ignored. After this stage, one reaches the level of being called the “pure consciousness field”, which phenomenology deals with and takes as its subject. This field is the basic entity called “consciousness entity”, it forms the base of all being.
Reflexion, the second element of the phenomenological method, examines this area of existence. Here there is “only me” as the basic entity. In order to obtain this area, first the reduction process is applied, then the second element, thinking is passed. This shows that the two elements that make up the phenomenological method are interconnected, and the second necessitates the first. This necessity arises from the closeness of the fields of existence that make up the “pure consciousness” and the “pure self”.
Phenomenology in Philosophy of Information
According to Husserl, the way to understand the essence is to know the phenomenon. Based on the phenomenon, the “essence” is reached. Phenomenology is a method used to reach the essence. In order to reach the essence of any object with this method, it is necessary to ignore all the given information by enclosing it in parentheses. Only in this way can essences beyond the objects perceived by the senses be attained.
Essence can be known directly by consciousness. Thanks to intuition, we can know the essence of things directly, unmediated, just like natural bodies in sense experiments.
As it can be understood from here, he starts from the subject in philosophy and according to him, the basis of the subject is consciousness. Consciousness is an entity that is in motion and orientation to its object. Therefore, consciousness can not only grasp sensory features such as a sound or a color, but also the pure meanings and logical essences of objects. According to Husserl, essences can be grasped through intuition. Essence is what makes an object itself and not something else, it is a property, a meaning. The essence is in the phenomenon, and consciousness can grasp this essence through intuition.
Phenomenology is also a method used to reach the essence. In this method, tangible features that do not constitute the essence of the entity are extracted. The concrete properties of the entity are extracted “in parentheses”. Thus, the essence of being is reached.
Phenomenology in the Philosophy of Being
The German philosopher Edmund Husserl (Edmont Huserl) saw existence as a phenomenon and based on this, he founded the contemporary philosophy movement, which he called phenomenology. Phenomenology is both a doctrine asserting that the “essence” can be known and a method used to reach the “essence”.
Essences of objects can be known by the human mind directed towards it. This can only be known by the method of phenomenology. The essence is the content of the phenomenon grasped with a kind of intuition. According to Husserl, our consciousness can know the object to which it is directed, and can grasp its essence by extracting it from its concrete features. The phenomenon is outside of time and space. The knowledge of the phenomena is reached by putting some of their elements in parentheses. According to Husserl, reaching the essence of beings is provided by bracketing all kinds of information, thoughts and prejudices about the existence of that being.
According to Husserl, phenomenology does not examine the singular entities that the senses provide to us. It deals with the essence of individual objects. According to him, every object carries an essence that makes it that object and is directly grasped. Man reaches this essence through the experiment he calls “seeing the essence”. For example; When we say human, we perceive black, woman, man, young and so on. we grasp not the individual human being, but the “human” essence, which we grasp thoughtfully.
Compiled by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology Lecture Notes for Grade 1 “Introduction to Philosophy” and Grade 3 “History of Contemporary Philosophy” (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook