Those Who Take Being as Being: What Does It Mean to Create Being?June 28, 2021
In the First Age, Heraclitus said that the universe was in a state of constant change, flow and becoming. According to him, the fundamental is not the unchanging substance, but the “fire”, which is the change, flow and becoming itself.
The main substance of the universe is “fire”. In other words, the first substance from which all beings emerge, that is arche, is fire. Everything that is made of fire turns into fire again. There is nothing in the universe that does not change. Everything is in constant change and becoming. Like nature, man is in a constant change with his soul and body. Heraclitus explained this change as “You cannot bathe in the same river twice; for the waters that flow over it are now new waters.” expressed in words. Indeed, the flowing waters make it another river each time.
According to Heraclitus, there is no peace and continuity in nature. On the contrary, there is full war, struggle and strife in nature. That’s why he said: “War is the father of everything.” And “contention is justice.” The essence of his philosophy of becoming is that everything arises from struggle and war, and everything is in a constant flow.
Another thinker who defends the idea that there is a constant change and becoming in the universe is Whitehead. According to him, there is only one reality and that is the visible and perceived reality. The universe is in a constant state of being, that is, in change and movement. In this process of becoming, every being needs another being in order to exist. Every being is born in relation to other beings. Even if an entity disappears, it continues to exist because of the relationships it has with other entities.
According to Whitehead, there are two forces in the universe. One is creativity and the other is continuity. These forces are complementary to each other. Thanks to these forces, the universe continues to exist as a living being.
Compiled by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology Lecture Notes for Grade 1 “Introduction to Philosophy” and Grade 3 “History of Contemporary Philosophy” (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook