Tomacilik, What Is Thomism, What Does It Mean?July 2, 2021
Thomism or Tomaism is the medieval scholastic philosophy that emerged from the thoughts of Thomas Aquinas. Thomism or Tomaism is the teaching of Saint Thomas, one of the scholastic thinkers of Christian philosophy.
Saint Thomas, taking the principles of Aristotle’s philosophy and applying the dogmas of Christianity, especially based on Aristotle’s matter-form comparison, the father-son belief and Hz. He tried to ground the idea of the reflection of Jesus in various bodies from a philosophical point of view.
Thomism or Tomaism is the teaching of Saint Thomas, one of the scholastic thinkers of Christian philosophy.
Aristotle’s philosophy over time – Hz. Even though it was 4 centuries before Jesus, it became the main belief of Christianity, and even in the Renaissance, a small objection to Aristotelian physics was punished by the inquisition. Opposing the philosophy of the Stoics and William of Ockham, Thomism, in opposition to idealism, acts from being, not essence. This constitutes the basis of Aristotelian realism against Plato.
According to Thomism, God created us like a father because of his goodness. Tomism, the whole of human activities, Hz. It aims to put them in their real places by arranging them according to the hereafter life, which is peace and eternal bliss, announced by Jesus. For this, the Transcendent being plays the most important role in this doctrine, and the real order is the order that will come only from above. The Thomistic School is distinguished from other teaching schools by doctrines concerning God’s Action on Man’s free will, God’s foreknowledge, the nature of grace (that grace does not originate in Man’s nature, which has been given to Man by God from the Beginning), and predetermined (the idea that God has forever determined and prerequisite all events that occur in time).
Thomas’s “Summa Theologica” is often second only to the Bible in the Roman Catholic Church, and is arguably one of the most influential philosophical books of all time.
Aquinas sought to create a philosophical system that combined Christian teaching with elements taken from Aristotelianism and enhanced the Neo-Platonic view of philosophy with Aristotle’s insights (which had been enormously influential among medieval philosophers after St. Augustine). He was instrumental in shifting the focus of scholastic philosophy from Plato to Aristotle.
He was greatly influenced by his reading of the works of Ibn Sina, Ghazali (1058-1111) and Ibn Rushd (although he had previously rejected their main conclusions and themes) and earlier Islamic philosophers. It also influenced well-known Jewish philosophy.
NEW THOMISM, NEW TOMACY
Today, Thomism has been reinterpreted with various data of modern sciences and has been revived by some deeply Christian philosophers. The prominent representatives of this movement, called New Thomism, New Tomaism or New Scholasticism, are E. Gilson, J. Maritain, Ch. thinkers like de Koninck, A. G. Van Melson. According to the New Tomaists, who oppose absolute idealism and naturalism, righteousness is only in the Catholic church; modern man must get rid of naturalistic beliefs and return to the spirit unity of the Middle Ages.
New Thomists place emphasis on metaphysics and the spiritual nature of man. This event took place in the 13th century in St. He was reconsidering many of the issues that Thomas was trying to solve and was trying to solve them with a philosophy of religion based on Christian principles by comprehending all the forms of human life.
THOMISM AND SCOTISM
Thomism is a philosophical doctrine opposed to Scotism (Scotism) during the scholastic period of the Middle Ages, which lasted from the 9th to the 14th centuries. In this context, the teachings of the Italian thinker Saint Thomas of Aquino (1224-1274) and the teaching of the Scottish thinker Duns Scotus (1270-1308) clashed over the basic problems of Christianity.
Scotus was four years old the year Thomas died. This radical polemic of Christian philosophy was made by the followers of both thinkers. Christian philosophy has sided with these two ideas in opposite directions. In fact, both ideas have their roots in the Patristic Period of the Middle Ages. Tomacilik is in the footsteps of Ogustinianism, Scotism is in the footsteps of Pelagusism.
According to Thomism, intelligence is superior to will, God is not free, and he created the world because he had to create it, since even God is not free, there can be no freedom for man. Man can do nothing for his salvation and is in need of God’s forgiveness. Only God can save man. In this respect, Tomaism is an intellectualist (intellectualism), determinist (determinism) and fatalistic (fatalism) movement.
By contrast, Scotsism is voluntaristic (volontarism), necessitary (indeterminism), and rationalist (rationalism); will is superior to intelligence, God is free and created the world because he wanted to create it. Man is also free and can save himself by his own effort without needing the help of God, the scripture must be believed because it is reasonable.
Thomism, the official philosophy of the Catholic church, was especially embraced by the Dominican order.