Types of Marriage, What are the Types of Marriage?July 2, 2021
In modern societies, marriage takes place and continues with the free will of the spouses, the bond of love and legal approval. There are types and types of marriage. Types of marriage and types of marriage will be explained under this heading.
Various types of marriage have been observed in the historical development process of societies.
Seeing different forms of marriage in different societies is due to factors such as ‘social needs, the ratio of male and female population, and the use of authority in the family.
TYPES OF MARRIAGE
Types of Marriage
1. Types of marriage according to the group from which the spouse is chosen
Exogamy and Endogamy
Exogamy (external marriage): It is the marriage of an individual from outside the group of which he is a member. Different societies interacted with this form of marriage.
Endogamy (internal marriage): It is the marriage of an individual from within the group of which he is a member. It is generally done in agricultural societies to prevent the division of the owned land.
2. Types of marriage by number of spouses
Monogamy and Polygamy
Monogamy (monogamous marriage): Marriage between a man and a woman. It is a common form of marriage in many societies.
Polygamy (polygamous marriage): Man or woman marrying more than one spouse at the same time. It has two different formats.
Polyandry (many marriage): A woman marrying more than one man at the same time. It is a rare type of marriage. This type of marriage is seen in Tibet and Alaska.
Polygyny (many marriage): A man marrying more than one woman at the same time.
3. Types of marriage by residence
Matrilocal, Patrilocal, Neolocal and Biolocal
Matrilocal (main circle): It is the married man living with the woman’s family.
Patrilocal (paternal circle): It is the marriage of the woman to live with the man’s family. It is seen in extended families where paternal authority is effective.
Neolokal (opening a house): Spouses living separately from their parents. As a result, the nuclear family emerges.
Bilokal (two natives): It is the continuation of marriage with the family of both the woman and the man. It occurs in nomadic societies.
Apart from the above types of marriage, levirate and sororate marriages are also encountered.
Levirate (beech); The marriage of a woman to the brother of her deceased husband. This type of marriage, which aims to protect the care and family integrity of the spouse and children of the deceased husband, is realized by the decision of the family elders rather than the married couples.
Sororat (sister-in-law); The marriage of a man whose wife has died with his adolescent sister-in-law is called sororat. Sororat is based on the idea that the person who will be the best mother to the children is the aunt of the children, and the aim here is to ensure the continuation of the kinship relationship established between the families. Since the social functions of marriage are a primary goal rather than its individual functions, the decision of the families is more important in these marriages.
Marriage is a form of relationship that has emerged in various forms as determined by cultural and legal norms in history. It is established and lasts according to certain rules and traditions. Society and laws do not accept marriages that do not occur within the framework of certain rules. Every society has determined marriage with its own various norms in order to add an institutional value to the family. These norms have gained a functional quality through customs.
The two most common forms of marriage in history are monogamy (monogamy) and polygamy (polygamy). Modern societies often encourage monogamy. While many countries have laws prohibiting polygamy, polygamous marriage is not an exception when the whole world is taken into account. It is possible to observe polygamous marriages in societies with different cultural and legal backgrounds.
In addition, internal marriage (endogamy) and external marriage (exogamy) according to the area where the spouse is selected, patrilocal (patrilocal), matrilocal (matrilocal) and neolocal marriages according to the place of residence of the spouses.
In internal marriage, the spouse is chosen from among relatives, whereas in external marriages, on the contrary, the spouse must be selected from outside the relative. In patriarchal marriages, which are also common in our society, the woman stays with the family of the man she marries. In matrimonial marriages, however, the man lives with the family of the woman he marries, and in our society, such marriages are defined as his in-laws.
In neolocal marriages, which are common in modern societies, married couples live independently of their families.