# Value of Science: The necessity of complementing scientific knowledge with other types of knowledge

June 28, 2021Efforts such as observation, experimentation and research are not enough for science to progress on solid grounds. All sciences must be complemented by the knowledge types of formal disciplines (science) such as logic and mathematics, which always control them, and the conveniences of technology.

Logic

Whatever our thinking position and form, we have to think on the basis of some logical principles. Logic is a particularly necessary way of thinking for any scientific study.

The aim of every science is to identify and explain the subjects within its field. The explanation must be made in accordance with logical rules. Explanation, prediction, and verification, which are the main elements of the scientific method, are based on logic.

Logic deals with the rules of correct thinking, not the explanation of facts. What matters for logic is not only the correctness of our judgments, but the correctness of the relationships between our judgments and of reasoning. It is the work of the sciences to ascertain the inner truth of factual propositions; If these are true, the inferences to be made from them are the work of logic. The logical accuracy of the judgments given in scientific studies is as important as the factual accuracy.

If the synthetic propositions reached by scientists are true, the inferences to be made from them according to the rules of logic are also true. The basic propositions from which logical inferences will be made are called “premises”. Logic deals with drawing true conclusions from these premises.

We have to rely on logic while making deductive and inductive inferences, which are the main methods of science. Both types of inference are frequently used in science. It is called induction in reaching scientific generalizations, and confirming these generalizations with observation data that has the power to explain them is called deduction. Regardless of the field of study, every scientist should have a solid knowledge of logic.

maths

Mathematics is a formal science that is at the foundation of scientific knowledge. Mathematics, like logic, is a discipline that deals with definite and necessary results.

Theorems, which are proven propositions in mathematics, are not likely to be false unless the premises (axioms) on which this proof is based are rejected. Propositions in the factual sciences can be falsified by an adverse observation or experiment. However, there is no such danger for propositions in mathematics. In mathematics, the truth value of propositions does not depend on the observation data. From a logical point of view, propositions in mathematics are not synthetic, they are analytical propositions whose truth is accepted as a priori (independent of observation).

Mathematics is not a game made in the human mind. It can be applied to almost all the factual sciences. Mathematics is an ideal language for expressing scientific findings and laws clearly, precisely and concisely. Mathematics is an indispensable tool in revealing the results of observation for the verification of a scientific hypothesis and theory. Without the inference techniques provided by mathematics, it is not possible to verify abstract theories, nor to use them for explanation and prediction.

It was Newton who fully placed mathematical technique in science. After combining the factual sciences with mathematics, he made great progress both in natural sciences such as physics, chemistry and astronomy, and in the humanities through statistical methods. As well as making great advances in the factual sciences using the language of mathematics, this cooperation also led to important developments in the mathematical sciences.

Galileo, “It is impossible to understand this great book called the universe unless you know the language and alphabet in which it was written. The universe is written in the language of mathematics. For those who do not know the language of mathematics, the universe is like an inextricable labyrinth.” Therefore, everything from celestial events in the universe to microcosm events in biological cells, from matter events to social and spiritual events is tried to be expressed in the language of mathematics. Any field of knowledge is considered a science only if it begins to use mathematical language.

Recent developments in computer technology have facilitated the use of logic and mathematics as the basis of all sciences.

technology

On the one hand, technology seems to be the application field of science, on the other hand, it is considered as “applied science”. However, science-technology cooperation is the work of the last centuries. In earlier times, science and technology seemed to be two fields that developed separately (for example, in ancient Greek and Roman times).

Although technology has developed on its own without the support of science, the systematic and important technological discoveries of the last centuries are thanks to scientific knowledge and research. The four-element theory of a time, which was not based on accurate knowledge but was “scientific”, alchemy studies did not give birth to any technology.

The activity of collecting facts, observations and classification alone cannot provide perfect scientific advances. A scientific study supported by technology becomes advanced and systematic. Science provides important support to technology and technology to science. Application of scientific knowledge to life