Views Denying There Can Be An Ideal Social OrderJune 28, 2021
a) Sophists: According to Protagoras, every person’s wishes and goals are different. For this reason, the characteristics of the state system that can make people happy will also be different. Therefore, there cannot be an ideal order that can make everyone happy and that everyone can agree on.
The natural order and natural life are more valuable and superior to the social order. Powerless people, who are numerous in social life, came together to protect themselves and made laws that were contrary to natural laws. This is against natural life and is not right. Because it means that the weak use a kind of violence against the strong. There can be no ideal order, because the ideal order is nature’s own order, and this ideal order has remained in nature.
According to Gorgias, there cannot be an order that everyone can adopt. Because the state restricts human freedom. This is against human nature. In this respect, it rejects the social order and the state.
b) Nihilism: Nihilism means not submitting to any authority in the political sense. According to nihilism, any authority is contrary to human nature. All institutions based on authority restrict human freedom. So, all values, institutions and orders that limit people are bad and should be destroyed. Because all kinds of authority blunt man’s instincts, destroy his personality, and all evils arise because of this. According to Nietzsche, its most important representative, all kinds of authority are contrary to human nature. suitable for human nature; being strong, fearless and ruthless. By putting pressure on people, the state destroys their naturalness and creativity. For this reason, it is not possible for an order based on authority to be an ideal order.
c) Anarchism: All restrictions and coercions on human beings should be removed, and an order without authority and state should be established. People can live more justly and happily without the state. Therefore, there cannot be an ideal order. Its representatives are Proudhon, Stirner and Bakunin.
Compiled by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology Lecture Notes for Grade 1 “Introduction to Philosophy” and Grade 3 “History of Contemporary Philosophy” (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook