# What are Gottlob Frege’s Contributions to Science?

June 27, 2021He is considered the greatest logician of the times after Aristotle. His revolutionary Begriffsschrift or Concept Paper, published in 1879, heralded a new era in the history of logic, replacing the old Term Logic, which had remained unchanged since Aristotle. Begriffsschrift has shaken the foundations of today’s quantification, which is used in all areas of mathematics, with concepts that solve the Multiple Generalization Problem of the Middle Ages, and the clear positioning of functions and variables.

Frege is the one who created the axiomatization of Propositional Logic and his invention, Predicate Logic. Quantification, a concept so fundamental to Bertrand Russell’s Theory of Definitions and Russell and Alfred North Whitehead’s Principia Mathematica, also belongs to Frege. His work was not widely known in his day, and his ideas spread through people he influenced, especially Giuseppe Peano and Russell. Ludwig Wittgenstein and Edmund Husserl are also notable people who have influenced him philosophically.

Frege is considered to be one of the founders of Analytical Philosophy with his deep systematic contributions to the Philosophy of Language, which is based on the function-argument analysis of the proposition, the separation of meaning and reference of proper nouns, the separation of concepts and objects, and the development of the principle of context. He corresponded with many of the leading logicians and philosophers of his time, such as Edmund Husserl and Max Schröder.

Frege was the first proponent of logicism, the idea that mathematics can be reduced to logic. In his work Grundgesetze der Arithmetik, he attempts to deduce the laws of arithmetic from logic. When he published the first volume (at his own expense), Russell discovered the paradox named after him and stated that Grundgesetzen’s axioms led to this contradiction. Although Frege acknowledged the existence of this paradox and stated the axiom that he thought caused this problem in the appendix to the second volume of the book, he could not make a satisfactory change in his axioms. Russell and John Von Neumann’s later work included how to solve this problem.

Despite this, and the generosity of Russell’s tribute to Frege, his value as a philosopher would have been nothing if not for his influence on Ludwig Wittgenstein, who had not achieved his lifetime fame and whose ideas in the Tractatus and Philosophical Investigations revolved around Frege’s concepts in logic and language. time was thought to be incomprehensible.

Important authorities on Frege include Michael Dummett, Günther Patzig, Hans Sluga, Terence Parsons and Vincent Riolo.

Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM

Source: Omer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Sociology Department 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook