What are Social Interaction Types?July 2, 2021
It is the social behavior that individuals or groups perform by influencing each other. Interaction is an important factor in shaping groups and determining status and roles.
If the interaction is capable of connecting people to each other, it brings them closer to each other, and if it occurs in the form of conflict, it can reach dimensions that threaten the existence of the society. Man, by nature, lives with other people. People live in groups. They coexist in places such as family, school, workplace.
Each individual has a unique position and the behavior patterns required by this position. As in the relationship between teacher and student, doctor and patient, officer and private. The relationships and coexistence of individuals with each other reveal some rules and behavioral patterns in accordance with the rules. These behavioral patterns ensure the continuity of groups and institutions. Individuals learn where and how to behave as a result of these relationships.
There is a constant relationship and interaction between individuals and groups. This is extremely important for both the individual and society. Because without them, neither the individual, the social group, nor the society can survive. From this point of view, society gives the appearance of a structure consisting of social relations. (Selman Erdem, Sociology, p.48)
As we can think from our own student experiences, we may compete with each other to get higher grades than our friends in exams and, on the other hand, we may work together on a project when necessary, we may disagree with our friends on some issues, or we may have to comply with the rules of the school whether we want to or not.
All these constitute some different aspects and stages of social interactions. What constitutes the living part of social life is this never-ending chain of interactions between individuals and groups. In social life, individuals or groups come face to face in different ways. In sociology, these forms of encounter are called “social interaction”. Some of these interactions ensure the stability and continuity of groups, while others encourage groups to change.
In sociology, the basic forms of social interaction valid in all societies and therefore accepted as universal processes; cooperation, exchange, conflict, competition, pressure, and harmony. However, today, various reasons have revealed new forms of social interaction such as the intertwining of societies, adaptation, and assimilation.
Cooperation and Exchange
Collaboration is when more than one group acts together to pursue a common goal. This interaction usually occurs in the face of a goal or problem that one of the parties cannot achieve alone. An example of this is when other people act together to save people who are exposed to the effects of a traffic accident. Collaboration is a form of interaction in which individuals combine their efforts to achieve a goal. It occurs in situations that require efficient use of resources. For example, people who are trapped as a result of a blizzard on the mountain they climbed for skiing have to cooperate in order to survive. However, it is also useful to explain that cooperation is not only a valid form of interaction in extraordinary events and situations. For example, children can set some rules among themselves while playing games, people living together can share housework among themselves, students can be organized in social projects and take responsibility. These are other examples of collaboration.
The interaction in the exchange is two-way and is based on voluntariness. In exchange interaction, behavior is performed with the aim of getting an expectation or response. E.g; such as individuals expecting a thank you from the person they helped, joining unions with the expectation of protecting the rights of workers and civil servants, establishing friendships for individuals to have a good time… Exchange finds its meaning in the following expression in Aristotle’s work “Ethics for Nicomachus”: People, or most people, wish for the noble, but prefer the profitable. It is noble to perform a service without expecting anything in return, and it is profitable to receive a service in return. A person should be compensated equally for his service, and he should do it voluntarily.” As can be understood from this expression, the act of an individual for another person voluntarily and expecting something in return is an exchange. You help a friend prepare for the project work and you expect him to help you prepare for the exams. Relationships here are reciprocal. In exchange, what it gives you is more important than the relationship itself. When you do someone a favor, your partner must also do you a favor, otherwise the relationship will not be exchanged. Therefore, the basis of exchange is reciprocity.
Competition and Conflict
More than one person or group