What are the Accuracy Criteria of Information?June 28, 2021
Is there anything one cannot know? If so, what determines it? Most of the problems experienced arise from not knowing exactly what and in what way, or not being able to define it. Here the problem of accuracy criteria of information arises. In other words, what are the criteria, grounds, values that will make a knowledge true or false?
From a broad perspective, investigating this situation could lead to significant improvements in resolving people’s conflicts over information. Two concepts come to the fore in philosophy in the search for answers to solve the problems that arise in this center: “limit” and “criterion”. In other words, the limits of knowledge and the criteria of knowledge.
In the discussion of the limit of knowledge, some thinkers have drawn a limit to knowledge in order to separate the known from the unknown, and some thinkers have argued that there is no such limit. One of the central points of the debate is whether a person can know the object to which he or she is directed as it really is.
Philosophers, who think that there is no limit to knowledge, accept a field of existence independent of human beings and argue that humans know the objects in that field as they are. Philosophers, who think that there will be a limit to knowledge, argue that people can know objects as they appear to them, not as they are.
The criteria of accuracy of information are: Relevance, Consistency, Universal consensus, Clarity, Utility.
Philosophers have put forward some criteria in discussing the problems of knowledge. In fact, in order to understand whether the information is true or not, he sometimes compares that information with known information, and sometimes he personally sees whether it matches the truth. There is always a reference point in determining the accuracy of information. Therefore, these criteria have been used in daily life, whether they are aware of it or not.
It would be wrong to think that these criteria determine the truth in every situation and that there can be no other criteria. Because these criteria are suitable in some cases and unsuitable in other cases, and for this reason they have been frequently criticized.
Prominent among the accuracy criteria of information; relevance, consistency, universal agreement, self-evidence, and utility.
ACCURACY OF INFORMATION
The accuracy criteria of information can be listed in five items. These:
Now we will explain the accuracy criteria of the information one by one.
Information Relevance Criterion
1. FITNESS CRITERIA
According to this criterion, the asserted statement is true if it coincides with the object of what it states. The compatibility of the language that comes out of the language and the situation that exists in reality is considered the basis for the accuracy of the information.
For example, the statement “It is Zeynep who knocks on the door” is true if Zeynep is seen when the door is opened. Or, the statement “It is rainy today” can be judged as true or false by observing whether it is indeed rainy. If the weather is rainy, the statement is true.
According to the criterion of relevance, truth is determined on the basis of the entity being talked about as true of a proposition. A proposition is true if and only if it conforms to the state of the being on which it is based.
This view was defended for the first time by Plato and Aristotle. According to them, a proposition is true if it expresses a property of being. If a property does not exist in the subject entity, the proposition is false. For example; The correctness of the statement “There are ten students in the class right now” is understood by looking at whether there are ten students in the class.
Consistency of Information Criterion
2. CONSISTENCY CRITERIA
According to this criterion, a statement is true if it does not contradict other information accepted as true, or if it is based on reasoning and is logically valid. For example, the statement “All triangles have three sides” is true because it is logically valid.
Within the framework of the consistency criterion, the accuracy of a judgment is not determined by its relation to reality. Accuracy is determined by looking at whether it contradicts our previous knowledge. In other words, the consistency of the information is checked. Consistency is based on the fact that the truth of a proposition does not contradict previously accepted true propositions.
In this system, the truth of a proposition alone is not important. It is considered important that it does not contradict other propositions and is consistent with them. For example, in geometry, it is important that the propositions that make up the Euclidean relation are not true in themselves, but that there is a consistency in the relationship with other axioms.
Universal Convention of Knowledge
3. GLOBAL RECONCILIATION
A statement made according to this criterion is true if it is accepted as true by the majority. The statement “The sick and the elderly should be given priority in official affairs” is true because it is accepted by the majority.
The universal consensus criterion is that the accuracy of a piece of information depends on the approval of everyone or the majority. The relationship of knowledge with reality or its scientific and logical depth is not considered.
Information that is accepted by everyone or the majority is considered correct. For example, the correctness of the idea that democracy is the best form of government shows the value of this management approach in political science.