What are the Basic Concepts of Political Philosophy?June 28, 2021
Individual: A person who constitutes a society and is a member of the society. It is every single social human being who has a unique identity that distinguishes him from others. It is a person who constitutes a society and is a member of the society and has certain qualities. It is an entity that distinguishes itself from other people and has an identity of its own.
Society: It is a community of people who come together to meet their basic and social needs, establish relationships with each other, share a common culture, and live on the same piece of land. It is a human community that consists of individuals and has a unique structure, and has a common culture and continuity with social relations between them. It is a community of people living on a certain piece of land, sharing a common culture, coming together to meet their basic and social needs.
Civil society: It is the community of free and autonomous citizens who can direct themselves outside the state institutions and defend their rights and freedoms. It is a society composed of free and autonomous citizens who can direct themselves and defend their rights and freedoms outside the state authority and institutions.
State: It is the largest political institution (organization) that has sovereignty over a certain piece of land with political boundaries. It has control and sanction over the human community that composes it. It is the legal and political authority formed by people living on a homeland who have created a common culture. It is the largest political institution that has sovereignty over a certain piece of land whose political boundaries have been determined.
Power: It is the person or persons who have the power to govern the people in a society. It means having the power to rule.
Governance: It is the administration of the society by the people or groups holding the power. It is the operation of an organization or an institution in line with the determined principles and objectives. It is the rule of the society by the people or groups that hold the power.
Legitimacy: It is those who hold power to maintain their power to govern in accordance with the law. It is the compliance of an action with the written law, the law. It refers to the use of sovereignty based on justified reasons. In a society, legitimacy can be used based on either social justification or laws.
Sovereignty: The state’s use of its power without any internal or external pressure. The power to manage is the reason for having the power to manage the resource.
Right: Anything that an individual can request or request from other individuals or institutions. They are things we have the authority to use and want. It is everything that an individual can request from other individuals or institutions.
Law: It is a system of written rules and laws that regulates both the relations between individuals and the relations of the individual with the state and takes the power of sanction from the state. It is a set of written norms regulating state-individual and individual-individual relations. It regulates the relations of individuals forming a society, both among themselves and with the state.
Law: It is a written rule of law that regulates the behavior of individuals in society. It is each of the written norms that are coercive and have sanctions that make up the law. It is the written legal rules that regulate the actions and behaviors of individuals in society and have the quality of an imperative.
Justice: Giving everyone what they deserve. In the most general sense, it is “to give everyone what they deserve”.
Democracy: Human rights and freedoms are guaranteed by the constitution; It is a management approach based on participation, pluralism and the rule of law.
Human Rights: These are the inviolable and inalienable rights that human beings have from birth. It is the intangible, indispensable and superior moral values that human beings are born with, regardless of any condition or status.
Secularism: It is a management approach that keeps religious affairs out of state affairs. It is the state’s equal distance from all religions and the guarantee of freedom of belief. It is a management approach that keeps religious affairs out of state affairs. It ensures that the state is equidistant from all religions and thus guarantees the freedom of belief.
Bureaucracy: It is the hierarchical (gradual) structure formed by the officials who fulfill the duties determined by the laws of the state. It is a community of civil servants working in the public sphere, organized in a hierarchical order.
Compiled by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology Lecture Notes for Grade 1 “Introduction to Philosophy” and Grade 3 “History of Contemporary Philosophy” (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook