What are the Basic Concepts of the Philosophy of Religion?June 29, 2021
Basic concepts of philosophy of religion; God, faith, holy, prophet, revelation, religious experience, fitra, tawhid, worship, faith, supreme, spirit, heaven, hell.
Religion: It is a system consisting of the beliefs, worship and rites of people who believe in a holy and form a unity around it. It is also a social institution that systematizes belief and worship of God, supernatural powers, and various divine beings. The order that collects and provides such beliefs in the form of rules, institutions, customs and symbols is called religion.
God: The first being that cannot be limited by time and space, is eternal, has unlimited power, and is the cause, source and creator of everything. It can also be defined as the sole and supreme being who creates and preserves everything in the universe. All that exists was created by him. Its existence has no beginning and no end. It is unlike anything else. It is unique and unmatched. He does not need anyone else. It has the qualities of life, knowledge, power, will, hearing, seeing, speaking and creating. TDK, on the other hand, defines the concept of God as follows: The only and supreme being who creates and protects everything in the universe.
Prophet: They are people specially chosen by God from among people in order to convey God’s messages to humanity. Prophets are sinless, truthful, just people. It can also be defined as a person who informs people of God’s commands and invites them to the path of God and religion. It means the messenger who brings news from God. They receive God’s commandments through revelation. not to sin; They have qualities such as being honest, intelligent, understanding and tolerant. TDK, on the other hand, defines the concept of prophet as follows: A person who informs people of God’s commands and invites them to the path of God and religion.
Revelation: These are the messages that God communicated to the prophets. It means the transmission of a command or thought by God to the prophets. According to universal religions, it is God’s transmission of divine information to his prophets by inspiration, dreams, angels or directly, and information transmitted in this way. The word means introspection. Perceiving in this way is a faculty peculiar to the prophets. TDK’s definition of revelation is as follows: An order or thought being communicated to the prophets by God.
Miracle: It is God’s intervention in natural events and directing these events beyond the limits of the human mind. The extraordinary events that the prophets show to people who do not believe in them in order to prove their prophethood, depending on Allah’s permission, are also called miracles.
Faith: Adopting holy things means not having doubts about them. It is an unquestioned, unequivocal belief in God and his revelations. It is the prerequisite of all religions in general.
Worship: All kinds of actions performed by people in accordance with their religious beliefs are called worship. It is all the manifestations of faith and devotion of a religion. God
by carrying out his commands. There are those that are done with the body, with the goods, with both the body and the goods.
Supreme: Denotes God’s infinity and eternity. The word means the greatest and the most superior.
Sacred: It is the subject of religious respect, which is considered to be worshipable. As a word, it expresses immutability, inviolability, uninterruptedness, eternity, immortality, completeness, universality and shows absoluteness with these meanings. It is the quality of things that are honored by religion in a society and that are believed to be separate from worldly affairs and to take place in a separate order. It is what arouses or should evoke strong religious respect.
Religious Experience: It is an expression of the individuality of religious life. It is the intuitions, feelings and perceptions that make the person connected to the divine being aware of it. These carry motifs that deeply affect the self, of which inner enlightenment comes first.
Fırat: It is the state of a thing in terms of the features it has gained while it was being created. It can also be said that God created the universe as a whole.
Tawhid: It means believing in the oneness of Allah, counting them as one, and looking at them as one. It means knowing and believing in the unity of God.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology Lecture Notes for Year 1 “Introduction to Philosophy” and Year 3 “History of Contemporary Philosophy” (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook