What are the Basic Principles of Scientific Study? (Pre-Assumptions in Scientific Studies)June 28, 2021
When it comes to the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the modern consciousness that Descartes, Newton and Comte were very influential in its formation in various ways, in short, is based on the following three basic assumptions.
The first presupposition is the “objectivist knowing” that emerges from the Cartesian distinction between the subject and the object, and the “objectivist learning” that occurs as a result. According to this view, there is no connection and interaction between the knower and the known, the learner and the learned, and there should not be any. If we really want to know/learn something, we should isolate ourselves from it as much as possible and just observe and describe it as a “looking spectator”.
The second presupposition has an epistemological structure. According to this assumption, we can only know what we perceive through our five senses. According to this, there may be realities that are not visible, that do not pass through the senses; but they are unknowable, so they cannot enter our field of knowledge.
The third presupposition constitutes the attitude of modern consciousness towards metaphysics, in other words, the dimension that rejects metaphysics. According to this presupposition, reality is ultimately quantitative. It is a situation in which abstract, metaphysical elements such as consciousness, value and aesthetics are absent.
Reality can only be mechanically known in the context of apparent relationships, within the physical cause-effect relationship. This view has given rise to the perception that the world and the entire universe are composed of mechanically functioning elements. This view, also called the positivist world view, has been severely criticized since its inception, but still has a significant impact on the shaping of modern consciousness.
It is very important for a research to be carried out in accordance with the stages required by the scientific method in order to gain a scientific qualification. But this alone is not enough. At the same time, research must be integrated with the basic principles of the scientific method. This is provided by the pre-acceptances, which are the basic principles of the method. These presuppositions are:
Basic Principles and Pre-Assumptions of Scientific Study
The principle of concreteness
When examining social life, the sociologist should consider that social events are perceived as concrete events that take place in a certain place and time. For example, the structure of a family in a city and a family in a village is not the same. Both have their own unique qualities. It is necessary to examine each family in its own characteristics and conditions.
the principle of objectivity
A scientist’s directing himself completely in line with the rules of science during his research means that whatever his personal expectations, beliefs and worldviews are, he does not allow them to deflect scientific results. While examining the society, the sociologist should search for what is not what should be, by getting rid of all kinds of subjective judgments with an impartial point of view. For example, if a social scientist is conducting a scientific study, such as comparing an ideology he shares with an ideology he does not share, he will violate the principle of objectivity when he does not show enough care in collecting data about the ideology he does not share.
The principle of assuming you don’t know
The researcher should be able to transform the research findings he has obtained on a subject he has researched before into an assumption that can guide him. He has to treat available information with skepticism. The researcher should act as if he does not know the information obtained up to that time about the subject he is examining temporarily. This attitude will make the researcher look at the information on the subject with suspicion and will protect him from making mistakes. For example, if the researcher moves from a few families or regions that he knows about unemployment and tries to reach generalizations based on this information, it will inevitably lead to misleading results. Therefore, the sample to explain the unemployment phenomenon should be chosen well.
Principle of limitation of subjects
The researcher has to determine the characteristics and boundaries of the subject to be researched. In the research to be conducted, the boundaries of the subject examined should be drawn and the researcher should determine precisely what to research. For example, a research on “migration” is a research with uncertain boundaries. If the subject is “brain drain” or “reasons for migration”, the limits of the research will be determined. A researcher who wants to do research on the problems of students in Turkey has to determine whether he will conduct his research at the primary, high school or university level. When we define one of them, we limit the subject.
The principle of changeability of social facts
The sociologist should take into account that the subject of research can change over time and space. It should take into account not only the current situation of a subject, but also its situation in the historical development process.
Our observations show that every event has a cause and that the cause of an event is another previous event. Here, without one of the events or processes, the other cannot occur, and the existence of one