What are the Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge?

What are the Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge?

June 26, 2021 Off By Felso

It is possible to define scientific knowledge as the knowledge obtained systematically, by a certain method, in order to reach the generally accepted knowledge in a predetermined area. Scientific knowledge has certain characteristics. These features can be grouped under the title of features of scientific knowledge. These features can be listed as follows:

1. Objectivity or objectivity

Scientific information; It is a type of knowledge that is revealed independently of the beliefs, opinions, perspectives and worldviews of scientists. This is an indication that scientific knowledge is unchangeable from person to person and from society to society.

Scientific knowledge includes truths that apply to everyone. Since these truths can be proven experimentally, scientific knowledge is generally accepted. For example, water boils at 100 degrees all over the world under normal conditions. The fact that water reaches its boiling point at 100 degrees is scientific and objective information.

Scientific knowledge includes truths that apply to everyone.
2. Reality

Reality means that the situations that science deals with exist within the observable physical reality and can be perceived and tested with our sense organs.

For example, boiling water is observable and perceptible to our senses. We can obtain the information at which temperature water boils, as a result of factual observation of water.

In summary, factuality is that scientific knowledge can emerge based on a concrete response.

3. Generalization

As science deals with individual facts, it also reaches generalizations with the similarities of these facts. Science that deals with any field of concrete bar or part of that field arrives at the general laws pertaining to them. Thus, it also reveals the existing relationships between the phenomena.

For example, the science that will explain the downward tendency of objects dropped from a height, while doing this, explains the falling potential of the stone, cotton piece and leaf with the law of gravity. The facts are different; but the event is the same: the falling event.

4. Universality

Science is the common heritage of all humanity. The point of development of science today was formed by the contribution of different scientists who grew up in different cultures.

The knowledge of humanity in any branch of science is not only the property of the person, group or community who obtained that knowledge, but the common property of all humanity. Because science has emerged as a common product of studies that complement each other throughout history. This product has to be at the service of all humanity.

For example, any treatment method developed in the field of medicine belongs not only to a certain group of people as the property of the person, group or society who found that method, but to the whole humanity and the whole field of medicine.

Universality can also appear as the acceptance of scientific laws the same in all societies. For example, cancer cells are cancer cells all over the world, and the fight against them is a universal one.

Universality can also appear as the acceptance of scientific laws the same in all societies.
5. Accumulation

Science is a dynamic process; regularly shows improvement and renewal on previous scientific studies and scientific theories. As a result, scientific knowledge is also dynamic and can be developed and renewed.

The fact that science regularly both benefits from the past knowledge of humanity and transfers knowledge to the future defines the cumulative nature of science.

Since saving means taking direction by putting on, developing and changing, science continues to accumulate for the future of humanity while developing by building on previous knowledge.

For example, the extremely advanced technological telescopes used today were developed as a result of the optical studies of Ibn al-Haytham, who lived in the 10th century.

6. Consistency

Consistency is a structure revealed by the science of logic. Consistency, with a common principle of thoughts; being connected by relation, order, concept, or idea; It is the state of mutual connection and harmony between the parts and elements of a logical whole.

Scientific knowledge has to comply with the rules of logic both while producing and verifying. There is no place in science for information that falsifies each other. Care is taken to ensure that the information constituting a system is consistent with each other and not conflicting.

7. Repeatability

Science deals with the phenomena it examines with a deterministic understanding, that is, according to the cause-effect relationship. This cause-effect relationship is revealed by the experimental method. The results obtained in this regard can be reproduced by other scientists or in any natural situation, either in laboratory conditions or in the natural environment. In other words, scientists can reach the same results by creating the same research conditions.

For example, the freezing temperature of water is minus four degrees under normal conditions. This information a