What are the functions of philosophy?December 21, 2019
Philosophy, to understand the real reality behind what appears; to examine concepts such as free will, duty and responsibility with universal value judgments, rules of personal and social behavior; is a study aimed at explaining the sources, qualifications and bases of our information.
The teachings reflecting different trends, approaches and perspectives are seen in each dimension of this study. Despite all these different perspectives, we can look at philosophy as an attempt to make sense of the world and our lives in general.
Philosophy, especially today, makes logical analyzes in language, science and mathematics. However, the universal function of philosophy is to process our understanding of the world and life with reason and to provide us with conceptual clarity in our field of knowledge. Philosophy, rather than the results of “solution;; The problems that he dealt with in relation to the universe and human beings acquire an identity in the way they approach these problems. Whether or not we provide the solutions we are looking for, it is important that they are based on a certain experience of philosophy. These explanations open up new horizons that enable us to enrich our thoughts, giving us the freedom to build our worldview on our own.
In its early stages, philosophy was an activity aimed at determining the nature of existence and finding the main principles that explained everything that happened in the universe. Later in the Middle Ages the church came under the influence. It became the attitude of understanding the universe as a work of God and making sense of human life in this direction. With the Renaissance, he turned to conceptual analysis, especially under the increasingly powerful influence of science. The main function of philosophy in our age and all its intellectual activities are; Critical analysis of science, art and morality in terms of assumption, meaning and aims.
In the past, philosophy has tried to comprehend reality as a whole only with reason and intuition. With the development of science, this attitude has lost its validity. Today, philosophy is no longer a comprehensive world view; science, art and morality. It treats the thesis and value judgments put forward in these areas with a critical approach. It investigates whether human life has any meaning and questions which actions one should perform. He is interested in conditions that can make people and society happy.
Philosophy has performed a number of important functions in the lives of people and communities. These functions, which reveal the importance and value of philosophy, can be listed as follows:
* Philosophy has been effective in the emergence of major political formations and transformations. The great political movements such as the Renaissance, Reform movements and the French Revolution are the basis of philosophers’ views.
* Philosophy has made significant contributions to the development and functioning of democracy, a form of government. Philosophers have important contributions to the foundation of fundamental rights and freedoms, the formation of constitutions, and the adoption of universal values such as equality, freedom and peace.
* Philosophy has an important function in human consciousness, understanding the universe, the world, self, and satisfying the urge to wonder and doubt. First of all
, it allows one to question the meaning of human existence. “Why am I in this world?”, Mı Is there a purpose in my life? In other words, there are some basic principles on which human life and actions are based. The questioning and grounding of these principles is of great importance in terms of understanding the existence of human beings in this world. An existence (life) that will be realized without questioning these principles on which life is based is an ordinary and unfounded existence.
* Philosophy teaches people to think clearly and correctly on many subjects. Philosophical thinking gives people the ability to look at a problem in many ways and to approach problems without prejudice.
* Today, it is described as information society. Information is seen as a commodity that can be bought and sold. We see that societies that have achieved modernity and development and created science and technology are also advancing in philosophy. Here is one of the important ways of producing knowledge is philosophy.
In addition, the following features can be listed among the functions of philosophy:
- Philosophy is an attitude towards life and the universe (Sönmez 2006, p.62).
- Philosophy is based on rational analysis and creative thinking.
- Philosophy is an effort to get a certain view about the universe and the whole.
- Philosophy is both the problem and theories about the solution of problems (Tozlu, 2003, ss.7-9).
- Philosophy is the logical analysis of language, the definition of concepts and words and their meaning is illuminated (Türkoğlu, 1996, ss.168-169).
- Philosophy makes the science guiding them to the purpose, method and technique is proposed (Çelikkaya, 1999, p.87).
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Year “ Introduction to Philosophy ” and Giriş Introduction to Sociology ”Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Other Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM), MEB Philosophy Textbook