What are the Issues and Views Emerging in the Modern Age?June 28, 2021
In every period, there are areas where philosophy was affected and influenced. 15-17. Science also influenced the philosophy of the century. In order to explain the philosophy of this period, the prominent subjects of the period such as humanism, scientific method, Cartesian philosophy and philosophy of law should be mentioned.
The understanding of humanism is the work of a thought that takes people away from the dogmatic influence of the philosophy of the 2nd – 15th century AD and takes them back to the philosophy of Ancient Greece. This return means reinterpreting man and the universe. Humanism is not a philosophy but a naming of an orientation, and it involves an effort to subject people. Humanism is a perspective in which the human being is centered and his mind is highlighted. This perspective consists of a new understanding of life and a desire to philosophize on people and the world.
Humanism first emerged in today’s Italy. The translation activities carried out in this geography and the philosophical background based on Ancient Greek thought are the obvious reasons for this exit. Humanism is a general expression and the first studies on philosophy were seen in the “Plato Academy” established in Florence. Here, all of Plato’s works were translated and Plato’s philosophy spread all over Europe. A similar situation is seen in the philosophy of Aristotle. Turning to the interpretations of Ibn Rushd about Aristotle enabled Aristotle’s thought to be reconsidered. The focus of this orientation was the thought of separating Aristotle’s philosophy from the scholastic understanding.
15-17. The greatest achievement of the century has been in the field of science. Renaissance, as in many other fields, also opposed the understanding of science shaped in the Christian thought of the 2nd – 15th century AD. Instead of experimentation and observation in science, they tried to explain scientific issues with the information they accepted as authority. Renaissance thought, on the other hand, focused on experiments, observations and calculable scientific studies, not knowledge that became an authority in science.
15-17. century is the period when science and scientific method developed. Observation, controlled experiment, hypothesis and mathematical calculation contributed to the method of science. Observation is a stage of scientific study since ancient times. In the Renaissance, he provided serious information about astronomy and anatomy. Controlled experiments, on the other hand, are an important step of scientific research, which enables scientific calculations, especially in the field of physics, and the verification of hypotheses, which are tentative explanation models. Mathematical calculations after observation, controlled experiment and hypothesis; established the reliability of scientific knowledge.
One of the first philosophers of 17th century thought and modern philosophy, Francis Bacon stated that “knowledge is for power” and argued that the most reliable way to reach the knowledge of nature is science and that the scientific method can provide this knowledge. Bacon expresses the scientific method as an instrument of reason.
Philosophy was based on reliance on scientific knowledge in the 17th century. The most important condition for ensuring this trust is; is to create scientific knowledge by using the steps of the scientific method. The fields that are the subject of science cannot be understood only with the information provided by the senses; science overcomes this situation by resorting to mathematical calculations. For example, it may be felt that the air is hot or cold, but measuring the temperature of the air allows the information to be handled scientifically. Cartesian philosophy is also known as Descartes philosophy. Descartes tried to establish an intelligible link between science and religion, which began to proliferate in the 15th century and gained momentum in the 17th century. Descartes founded his philosophy on what is known as methodical doubt.
Descartes seeks a foundation in knowledge that cannot be doubted. He tries his methodical doubt on his own knowledge in this respect. Descartes states that he can doubt everything he knows and feels, but at the last point he cannot doubt himself and doubt himself. One of the famous sayings of philosophy, “I think, therefore I am.” reaches judgment. This judgment claims that a person can reach certain information through reason and based on this information, he can reveal the accuracy of the information he has obtained throughout his life. Descartes put forward some presuppositions for this result, which can be explained as thinking on thinking. These acceptances of his are based on ontological proofs for the existence of God.
This inference, which constitutes the main point of Descartes’ philosophy; it creates a result that takes the thinking self as its basis and subjectifies it. This perception of the subject 15-17. century philosophy has been the starting point. The subject is also the center of knowledge. Descartes analyzes the entity, which is the subject of knowledge, after the inference about knowledge. There are two main substances in the realm of existence: Creator and created substances. The creating substance is the infinite substance that needs nothing but itself and creates everything. The created substance, on the other hand, is the spirit and matter substances, which are composed of two irreducible sub-substances and are finite at the same time (Figure 3.2). Soul; corresponding to the mind, thinking