What Are the Stages of Natural Selection?June 26, 2021
Preparing Natural Selection for Emission
Darwin had laid the groundwork for the idea of natural selection, but he knew he had to work hard to convince his skeptical colleagues. At the Geological Society’s meeting in December 1838, he had witnessed firsthand how vehemently his old teacher, Robert Edmund Grant, who advocated the idea of evolution, was opposed. He continued to interview animal breeders and conduct experiments on plants to find evidence to support his theory.
When Captain FitzRoy’s Beagle report was published in May 1839, Darwin’s part was so well received that it was later published as a book in its own right.
Early in 1842, Darwin wrote Lyell a letter explaining his ideas. Insisting that every living species had its own beginning, Lyell was very upset when his geological ally, Darwin, denied this. In May 1842 Darwin’s work on coral reefs was published, at the same time that Darwin put down a “sketch” of his theory of natural selection. In November 1842, the Darwin couple moved to Down House on the outskirts of London to escape the stresses of London. Opening his ideas to his botanist friend Joseph Dalton Hooker in January 1844, Darwin felt “as if he were confessing to a murder”, but Hooker liked Darwin’s theory. By July, Darwin’s “sketch” had turned into a 230-page essay. When the book called Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, which was published anonymously in October 1844 and which argues that all living things, including humans, emerged by transformation from primitive forms, was slammed by naturalists, it was once again how careful he should be about Darwin’s theory he understood. The book attracted great interest from the London middle class and once again brought up the issue of the transformation of species. Darwin published his third geology book in 1846, and with his friend Hooker began an extensive study of shellfish. In 1847, Hooker read Darwin’s long essay on natural selection and offered unbiased, unbiased criticisms, but also questioned Darwin’s opposition to the idea of creation.
In 1849, Darwin went to a spa in Malvern in hopes of restoring his long-deteriorated health, and two months later he felt better. When his beloved daughter Annie fell seriously ill in June 1850, Darwin began to think again that his chronic ill health was hereditary, and with Annie’s death in April 1851, he lost all faith in a benevolent God.
Describing the results of his studies on shellfish in a series of books published between 1851 and 1854, Darwin was awarded a medal by the Royal Society in 1853 for this work. In addition, this work made Darwin, who was known as a geologist until then, also famous as a biologist. In his study of shellfish, Darwin observed evidence that an organ with a certain function can change its function by undergoing minor changes as a result of changing conditions. In November 1854, he wrote in his notes that living things descended from a common ancestor could diverge anatomically from one another as a result of adapting to “discrete places in nature’s economy.”
Publication of Natural Selection
As early as 1856, Darwin was examining whether eggs and seeds could cross seawater and carry species across the ocean. His friend Hooker began to question his belief in the immutability of living things, but Darwin and Hooker’s mutual friend Thomas Henry Huxley was strongly against the idea of evolution. Lyell, on the other hand, followed Darwin’s ideas with interest, but could not see the results. When Lyell read an article by the Borneo naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace, he saw similarities with Darwin’s ideas and began to pressure Darwin to write an article. Although Darwin did not see Wallace as a threat, he began to write an article. When he started adding detail after detail to the article, he decided to turn it into a long book entitled Natural Selection. He was in correspondence with many of his colleagues, including Wallace, for the book. In December 1857, when Wallace asked if he would touch on the origin of man, he told him that he would stay away from “this preconceived subject.”
In June 1858, when Darwin was halfway through his book, he received an article from Wallace. In this article, Wallace was describing the idea of natural selection that Darwin had kept in mind for years. Very demoralized, Darwin sent the article to his friends Lyell and Hooker and requested that it be published in any journal of Wallace’s choice. Knowing that Darwin had thought about the idea of natural selection long before Wallace and had been doing detailed research on this subject for a long time, his friends decided that Darwin and Wallace’s articles should be read in a joint presentation at the Linnean Society on July 1, 1858. Darwin could not attend this presentation because of the funeral of his young son, who died of scarlet fever.