What Are the Traditions of Philosophy in the Middle Ages?June 28, 2021
As can be understood from the general characteristics of medieval philosophy, there is a general religious orientation.
Accordingly, if we specify the prominent philosophical traditions, we can list them as follows:
– Christian philosophy
– Islamic philosophy
– Jewish philosophy
Another tradition that can be added to these is the philosophy called Byzantine philosophy because it was the Greek philosophy in the Byzantine Empire.
Despite the differences of these traditions, their common philosophical features stem from the fact that they are based on ancient philosophy; These traditions maintain the philosophy of antiquity according to their religious characteristics and have constantly influenced each other on this basis. In the medieval philosophical traditions, most of the important philosophers and philosophical movements of antiquity appear, except for skepticism. It is understandable that the religion-based style of philosophy completely excludes skepticism. It is clear that a philosophical tradition with a god at its center will not allow skepticism. Apart from this, philosophical orientations such as Plato, Aristotle and Stoicism continue their existence.
In the beginning stages of medieval philosophy, it is necessary to consider the Apologians. They try to defend the Christian religion and to prove that Christianity is not evil and irreligious as it is said. Likewise, it appears in patristic philosophy as an attempt by the clergy to establish the foundations of Christianity. In addition, it is possible to see gnosticism as a religious-mystical tendency in the beginning stages of medieval philosophy. The culmination of this trend is St. Augustine. By trying to establish the conceptual form of belief, Augustine turned to ground the Christian thought and became one of the most important names of medieval philosophy with his work at this point. Although it is the representative and basis of Christian philosophy, many discussions of Augustine have survived in modern thought.
Meanwhile, it can be said that there is Neo-Platonism against the approach of Augustunus. While Augustine says that the task of philosophy is to rationally justify the teaching of the Church, Neo-Platonists express the search for personal religion, starting from the individual. Thus, the first approach leads philosophy to scholasticism, and the second to mysticism.