What are the Traditions of Philosophy in the Middle Ages?December 23, 2019
As can be understood from the general characteristics of medieval philosophy, there is a general religious axiality.
Therefore, if we mention the specific philosophical traditions, we can say:
– Christian philosophy
– Islamic philosophy
– Jewish philosophy
Another tradition that can be added to these is the so-called Byzantine philosophy since it was a Greek philosophy within the Byzantine Empire.
In spite of the differences of these traditions, their common philosophical traits come from the fact that they are based on ancient philosophy; these traditions continue the antiquity philosophy according to their religious qualities and have influenced each other on this basis. In medieval philosophical traditions, most important philosophers and philosophical movements of the ancient age are seen, except skepticism. It is understandable that the philosophy of religion-based philosophy completely excludes skepticism. It is clear that a philosophy tradition with a god in its center will not allow skepticism. In addition to this, philosophy orientations such as Plato, Aristotle and Stoicism survive.
In the early stages of medieval philosophy, Apologians need to be addressed. They try to defend the Christian religion and prove that Christianity is not as evil and atheism as it is said. Patristic philosophy appears as an attempt to establish the foundations of the Christian doctrine of clergy. It is also possible to see gnosticism as a religious-mystical tendency in the early stages of medieval philosophy. The peak of the trend in question And Augustine. Augustine tried to form the conceptual form of faith and started to base Christian thought and became one of the most important figures of medieval philosophy with his work. Although he was the representative and basis of Christian philosophy, many of Augustine’s debates remained in modern thinking.
In the meantime, it can be said that there is neo-Platonism in the face of Augustunus’ approach. While Augustine says that the duty of philosophy is to rationalize the doctrine of the Church in a rational way, he expresses the search for personal religion by acting from the individual of the Neo-Platonists. Thus, the first approach leads philosophy to scholastism and the second to mysticism.