What are the Types of Information?June 26, 2021
Before addressing the subject of what are the types of knowledge, it is necessary to examine the reasons for the differences in knowledge. Man is a versatile being. This allows people to relate to different abstract and tangible entities. Therefore, it is necessary to talk about many types of knowledge, not just one type of knowledge for human beings.
It is possible to explain this as follows: In order to reflect on his existence and understand the purpose of his life, a person needs the knowledge of philosophy; scientific knowledge in order to understand the world and society in which he lives; technical knowledge to transform the objects existing in nature into tools; He needed art knowledge in order to develop his sense of beauty and taste, and religious knowledge in order to be purified.
Information is divided into different types according to the characteristics it carries and the methods of obtaining it. Each of these are different types of information. Perhaps the only common point of these types of knowledge is that they emerged as a result of the relationship established between the subject and the object. By examining the table below, you can see the information flow of information types and their characteristics:
Characteristics of Information Types
What are the Types of Information?
What is everyday knowledge?
What is religious knowledge?
What is technical information?
What is art knowledge?
What is scientific knowledge?
What is philosophical knowledge?
It is practical information that people use in their daily life. It is based on one’s subjective perceptions and judgments. It is the result of subjective generalizations. It is the product of trial and error, unconscious observation and generalizations.
If the bond between the subject and the object is based on a belief system determined by a divine being, this type of knowledge is religious knowledge. Religious knowledge is a type of knowledge that is associated with the qualities of “immutability” and “certainty” that explain the universe, man and society on the basis of a certain religion.
The knowledge of making tools or equipment is called technical knowledge. According to the Greeks, technique (techne) is the transformation of materials that are not in nature, but that people take from nature thanks to their own mind, into a tool that will make their life easier. Technique, then, is the knowledge of turning something into practical use rather than a theoretical knowledge.
Skill emerges as a creation and production activity and serves the sense of beauty rather than utility. “The knowledge of art is the knowledge that emerges during the manifestation of beauty.” By turning to the object, the artist tries to express what he sees in the material in his hand. At this point, the Subject (artist) – Object (art work) relationship can become problematic, because if the artist reveals a beauty that does not exist in nature, despite the use of objects in nature, whether the work of art is expression / representation becomes problematic.
Scientific knowledge is the methodical, systematic, regular, consistent and valid, verifiable and controllable knowledge of the object. In short, scientific knowledge is systematic-positive knowledge.
Scientific Information: Formal Sciences
The branches of science that do not take their subject from nature, that is, do not come from sense experience, but that deal with an ideal supersensory existence are called formal sciences. Mathematics and logic are such sciences. The objects of the formal sciences are not located in time and space. Both math and logic use deductive inferences.
Scientific Information: Natural Sciences
The branches of science that deal with beings existing in the perceptible world are natural sciences. It is factual, universal, correct(verifiable) information. It tries to explain the phenomenon or the relationship between phenomena according to the principle of cause-effect relationship. The law of nature is based on the principle of causality and is known through this principle. Because beings in nature exist in an order and order is the indicator of law.
Scientific Information: Human Sciences
It is the sciences that produce the kind of knowledge whose subject is human and/or society. This type of information can handle people and / or society in terms of their past, present or future, or as a combination of these.
Unlike other types of knowledge, philosophical knowledge deals with and tries to understand them as a whole, without dividing the universe, existence, human, society into sections or subjects.
Specifying philosophical knowledge is more difficult than others. It is even possible to say that the most important problem of philosophy is the problem of what philosophy itself is.
Related topic: What are Information Types?
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer Yıldırım