What Is a Leap, What Does It Mean?July 2, 2021
The transition phase from quantitative change to qualitative change. It is one of the most important concepts of historical and dialectical materialist philosophy. In nature, society and consciousness; in a word, it names the transitional stage, which is explained by the law of transition from quantity to quality, which is valid throughout the universe. Universal evolution works by this law. Evolution is the unity of continuity and discontinuity. First, quantitative changes accumulate continuously and gradually (Os. Gradual). These changes are continuous because they go on gradually, maintaining the same quality. The degree of rapidity of the leap is relative, proportional to the rate of quantitative accumulation, for example, where quantitative accumulation takes millions of years, as in the transition from ape to man, the leap takes hundreds of thousands of years.
But it is still a leap; because it has been skipped from one attribute to another. On the other hand, there are also immeasurable jumps, such as when water that is boiled at 99 degrees is suddenly turned into steam by boiling another degree. This dependence and unity of discontinuity and continuity can also be seen in the inner structure of matter. Matter carries the wavy nature, which shows the continuity, and the granular nature, which shows the discontinuity.
Nature, society, and consciousness are full of countless examples of this punctuated evolutionary process that we observe every day. For example, in nature, when water is between 1-99 degrees, it is water, becomes ice at 0 degrees and steam at 100 degrees, it jumps to a completely different quality. Only a change of degree makes the water suddenly change its quality. All qualitative changes, contrary to the metaphysical and individualistic understanding, are the result of quantitative accumulations and changes. Boiling or cooling water is to bring about quantitative changes in it. For example, boiled water is continuous and uninterrupted in its quantitative changes up to the 99th degree, it continues as a continuous series of quantitative changes. But boiling it 1 degree more than 99 degrees suddenly makes an interruption, a jump, in this continuous course, and the water changes quality and becomes steam.
For example, a parliamentary candidate in the society, if he needs to get five hundred votes to be elected, is a candidate for parliament with up to four hundred and ninety-nine votes. By getting one more vote, he quickly changes his qualifications and becomes a deputy while he is a deputy.
In consciousness, for example, a student’s knowledge gradually increases in quantity. At the end of a certain accumulation of knowledge, it changes qualifications rapidly and until that time, while a student, it became a turner, doctor, engineer, etc. happens.
The law of universal evolution is the qualitative transformation of quantitative changes by leaps and bounds in all phenomena and events. This law is one of the three universal laws (the other two are the law of unity and struggle of opposites and the law of the negation of negation N.). The leap and the resulting change in quality are expressed by the phrase ‘revolution’. “Simple changes occurring in quantity throughout evolution require qualitative change after reaching a certain degree”. “What distinguishes the dialectical transition from the non-dialectical transition? Leap”. This law is one that the metaphysical and idealistic camp attempts to deny. For example, Spencer argues that evolution occurs only with quantitative changes, Bergson only with qualitative changes. According to idealism, to which Leibniz also agrees, “there is no leap in nature”. All these idealistic and metaphysical arguments are obviously unscientific.
In the Dictionary of Sociological Terms published by the Turkish Language Association, Dr. Özer Ozankaya expressed the term leap with the term breakthrough and defined it as follows: “The stage of radical change in which quantitative changes lead to changes in the old characteristics of a social phenomenon and reveal a new quality”. He also defined the term leap as: “The qualitative manifestation of the development process and changes”. He used the term leap and continuum for discontinuity and continuity and defined it as follows: “Basic features of society that are opposed to each other but are related to each other.