What is Analytical Philosophy? Analytical Philosophy

What is Analytical Philosophy? Analytical Philosophy

June 28, 2021 Off By Felso

Analytical philosophy or analytic philosophy is the contemporary form of positivism in the 20th century. According to this understanding, also known as neo-positivism or logical positivism, the main field of philosophy is language. The emergence of analytical philosophy, first of all, was made possible by the criticism of the Kantian understanding of metaphysics, which was dominant in the 19th century.

The analytical philosophy movement is a philosophy school that was founded by criticizing the traditional thought systems of the 1900s and developed its philosophy in this direction. This movement is outside of analytical philosophy; Analysis is also known by names such as Oxford Philosophy and Cambridge School of Analysis.

Analytical philosophy represents a reaction against the Hegelian concept of “Absolute Reality” and its idealistic synthesis.

In idealist philosophy; It was accepted that reality was completely independent of appearances and that philosophy was interested in this independent field. In analytical philosophy, on the other hand, it is accepted that the function of philosophy is not to speculate about the field that is assumed or believed to be independent of our senses, but to analyze the meaning of what we call knowledge is knowledge through linguistic research and to remove intellectual confusion or misunderstandings from philosophy or even wrongly asked questions.

Analytical philosophy is based on language analysis.

According to this approach, philosophy; should not put forward untestable doctrines on existence, value, and god. The task of philosophy is to analyze concepts in language.

According to this understanding of philosophy, knowledge based on science is correct knowledge. In order to understand whether a piece of information is true or not, analysis of the information is required. For this purpose, the foundation and structure of the propositions used by science are examined. This is language analysis.

According to analytical philosophy, one of the problems that arise in philosophy is fuzzy logical inferences; The other is the mixing of words with different meanings. In order to solve the problems arising from these reasons, it is necessary to create clear-cut logical inferences instead of fuzzy logical inferences and to establish an artificial language system consisting of univocal words.

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL PHILOSOPHY

After the First World War, a group of scientists came together in Vienna and formed this movement, and then the current developed and spread in England and America. It is also known as neopositivism (neopositivism) or logical positivism. According to this movement, the main field of philosophy is language. According to analytical philosophers, the task of philosophy is to analyze language. Because according to them, correct information can only be obtained in this way.

According to analytical philosophy, philosophy should not put forward untestable views on existence, value and God. The task of philosophy is to analyze concepts in language. If the concepts in the language are solved, the traditional philosophical problems that create confusion can also be solved.

KANT and ANALYTICAL PHILOSOPHY

As it is known, Kant questioned the possibility of metaphysics in his transcendental philosophy and fiercely criticized speculative metaphysics. After Kant’s criticism, it was generally accepted whether the soul is an immortal substance, whether a proof of God can be given, or that reasoning about the general characteristics of the universe contains some kind of illusion.

On the other hand, Kant thought that some kind of metaphysics was possible within the limits of reason. At the center of Kantian metaphysics were the judgments that Kant called synthetic a priori.

According to Kant, the judgments of mathematics (“The sum of 3 and 5 is 8.” or “The sum of the interior angles of a triangle is 180 degrees.”) and the judgments underlying theoretical physics (“All events happen for a reason.” They were synthetic a priori judgments of universal necessity and objective validity.

The process of placing language and its logic in the center of philosophy through the criticism of Kantian metaphysics can be considered as the process in which analytical philosophy was born.

The process of placing language and its logic in the center of philosophy through the criticism of Kantian metaphysics can be considered as the process in which analytical philosophy was born.

In a way, after the elimination of a kind of metaphysics through Kant’s criticisms, the elimination of metaphysics as Kant advocated has been decisive for the development of analytical philosophy.

How did the process of elimination of this second version of metaphysics take place? To understand this, it would be appropriate to take a look at the striking developments in mathematics and science in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

The first of the developments we wish to mention is the discovery of non-Euclidean geometries. The discovery in question deeply affected the Kantian understanding of mathematics, which was influential at that time. Another very important development in terms of these discussions is Einstein’s presentation of the special and general theory of relativity.

These developments undermined the idea that the judgments of geometry are synthetic and a priori. Parallel to these developments, another development took place in the field of mathematical logic. Your math has come down to logic