What is Analytical Philosophy (Analytical Philosophy)?December 24, 2019
The emergence of analytical philosophy was made possible, above all, by the critique of the Kantian metaphysics that prevailed in the 19th century. Analytical philosophy is a form of positivism that took a contemporary look in the 20th century.
The analytical philosophy movement is a philosophy school which was founded by criticizing the traditional thinking systems of the 1900s and developing its philosophy in this direction. Apart from analytical philosophy; Analysis is also known as Oxford Philosophy and Cambridge School of Analysis.
Analytical philosophy represents a reaction to the Hegel-derived concept of Gerçek Absolute Reality ve and its idealistic synthesis. In idealist philosophy; it was accepted that the truth was completely independent of appearances and that philosophy was concerned with this independent field. In analytical philosophy, it is accepted that the function of philosophy is not to speculate about what is supposed to be independent of our senses or what is believed to be, but to analyze in what sense what we call knowledge is linguistic research, and to extract questions from the philosophical confusion or misunderstanding and even wrong questions.
Analytical philosophy is a form of positivism that took a contemporary look in the 20th century. According to this understanding, which is also known as neo-positivism or logical positivism, the main field of philosophy is language. According to this approach, philosophy; the teachings on existence, value, and god cannot be tested. The task of philosophy is to analyze the concepts in language. According to this philosophy, knowledge based on science is correct information. An analysis of information is also necessary to determine whether or not information is correct. For this purpose, the structure and structure of the propositions used by science are examined. This is language analysis.
According to analytical philosophy, one of the problems that emerge in philosophy is fuzzy logical inferences; the other is the mixing of words with different meanings. In order to solve the problems arising from these reasons, it is necessary to create clear logical inferences instead of fuzzy logical inferences and to establish an artificial language system consisting of single meaning words.
After the First World War, a group of scientists came together in Vienna to form this movement, and the trend then developed and spread in England and America. It is also known as neo-positivism or logical positivism. According to this trend, the main field of philosophy is language. According to analytical philosophers, the task of philosophy is to make language analysis. Because according to them the right information can only be obtained.
According to analytical philosophy, philosophy should not suggest existence, value, and unquestionable views on God. The task of philosophy is to analyze the concepts in language. If the concepts in the language are analyzed, the problems of traditional philosophy that create confusion can be solved.
The main representatives of this movement are Ludwig Wittgenstein (Ludvig Vitgenstein), Moritz Schlick (Moris Chile, 1882-1936), Rudolph Carnap (Rudolf Carnival, 1891-1970) and Hans Reichenbach (Hans Rayhinbah, 1891-1953).
As it is known, Kant questioned the possibility of metaphysics in his transcendental philosophy and criticized speculative metaphysics. After Kant’s critique, it was generally accepted whether the soul was an immortal substance, whether a proof of God could be given, or that reasoning about the general characteristics of the universe contained some kind of illusion.
Kant, on the other hand, thought that some kind of metaphysics was possible within the confines of reason. At the center of the Kantian metaphysics was the judgments that Kant called synthetic a priori. According to Kant, the judgments of mathematics (such as “the sum of 3 and 5 are 8” or toplam the sum of the inner angles of a triangle are 180 degrees)), and the judgments underlying theoretical physics (“All events take place for a reason.“ synthetic a priori judgments of universal necessity and objective validity. Through the critique of Kantian metaphysics, the process of placing language and logic of language at the center of philosophy can be accepted as the process in which analytical philosophy is born.
In a way, after the elimination of a kind of metaphysics through Kant’s criticism, the elimination of metaphysics as Kant argued was decisive for the development of analytical philosophy. How was the elimination of this second version of metaphysics? To understand this, it would be appropriate to look at the striking developments in the fields of mathematics and science in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The first of these developments is the discovery of non-Euclidean geometries. The discovery deeply influenced the Kantian understanding of mathematics that was influential at the time. Another very important development in terms of these debates is that Einstein put forward his private and general theory of relativity. These developments shook the idea that the judgments of geometry were synthetic and a priori. Another development parallel to these developments took place in the field of mathematical logic. Demonstrating that mathematics can be reduced to logic and, therefore, that mathematical propositions are analytic, in particular Gottlob Frege ‘s work has gained momentum.
Please also see:
– Ludwig Wittgenstein and analytic philosophy
– the twentieth century, the philosophy of logical positivism and information problems
– Logical positivism What?
– Philosophers around Vienna
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook