What is Anarchism?June 28, 2021
It is possible to answer the question of what anarchism is as follows: Anarchism is a political doctrine or current that argues that authority and order in any form are unnecessary. Anarchism is a social term that describes various political philosophies and social movements that advocate eliminating all forms of social authority, domination, power and hierarchy. Anarchism is the rejection of any authority under any circumstance.
WHAT IS ANARCHISM?
The word “anarchy”, which is a combination of the prefix “a-” meaning “absence of -in” or “absence of -in” and “archos” meaning “ruler” in ancient Greek, generally means “lack of power”, “absence of administration”. It means. Anarchism is an ideology that advocates the total freedom of the individual, and that in the absence of a state institution, people can establish a social order, moreover, a more just and libertarian social order.
According to this view, man is inherently good, and in order for this situation to continue, one must be free. Moral rules, state and legal rules restrict human freedom. And this prevents a person from being good. Man realizes himself better in the world without them. Therefore, it is necessary to reject all kinds of rules, laws.
Anarchism does not accept private property and authority. This understanding, like egoism, argues that everyone acts according to their own interests and interests, and since everyone’s interests cannot be the same, there is no universal moral law. Although anarchism emerged as hostility to the state, it also attracted attention with its opposition to religious authority.
TYPES OF ANarchism
Anarchism has opposed forced cooperation or the threat of external coercion, arguing that cooperation and mutual aid are possible in human life. Although we generally accept anarchism as an anti-state view, anarchism itself is divided into different branches. While individualist anarchism recognizes the ownership of material means to everyone, communist anarchism advocates the management of property by voluntary groups.
Anarchism, which stands on two main principles, argues that society does not need government and that no government can be legitimate without the real consent of individuals. The first serious anarchists were French syndicalist theorists such as Proudhon, who thought of establishing a governmentless society. Proudhon argued that the state could not be trusted more than the private sector, that property was theft, that humanity would attain freedom only on the day when state tyranny and capitalism would come to an end.
However, anarchism contains many political doctrines. A typical example of this is Marxism, which argues that the state will eventually wither away.
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon is one of the representatives of anarchism.
THE FOUNDATIONS AND FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF ANARCHISM
Theoretically, anarchism is based on the moral assumption that freedom is absolute and that no one can be compelled to submit to any authority unless freely consented to. It seeks its application in a favorable set of assumptions for organizing voluntary associations dedicated to collaborative work and mutual aid. These assumptions indicate that anarchism prevails in an environment where large-scale industry has not developed.
The basic idea of anarchism exhibits a close cooperation between the idea of direct democracy and the idea of direct participation in industrial units. Anarchism advocates the elimination of all forces that limit the individual.
These movements often advocate voluntary interaction and self-management based on social relations rather than centralized political structures, private ownership of the means of production and economic institutions, and desire a society characterized by freedom and autonomy. These philosophies refer to a society based on the voluntary interaction of free individuals with the term anarchy, the idea that individuals and communities have a say to the extent that they are affected by the decisions taken.
Opposition to coercive institutions and socially based hierarchies is an essential tenet of anarchism, and also anarchism expresses a positive view of how a voluntary society would work. There is considerable variation among anarchist philosophies. There are various views in different areas, such as the place of violence in anarchism, what kind of economic system should be, questions about the environment and industrialism, and the role of anarchists in other movements. Anarchist currents can be very different and even opposed to each other for these reasons. For example, besides anarchist communism, there are also anarchist movements such as Christian anarchism.
Criticisms of the ideology of anarchism, which idealizes equality in rights and the widest recognition of individual freedoms, focus on the emphasis of this ideology on statelessness and authoritarianism. According to these critiques, the use of force will continue to manifest itself in various forms even if there is no state, and in an environment without institutional constraints, some individuals are fit to form an oppressive state or an alternative authoritarian organization that will largely impose their interests.