What Is Argumentation, What Does It Mean?July 2, 2021
(Os. İstidlâl, Muhâkeme, Fiqrü nazar, Kıyâsı wise, Huccet, Kıyâs, Nazar, İstidlâli analysis, Delil, Fikir; Fr. Raisénnement, Al. Vernunftschluss, İng. Reasoning, It. Ragionamento rational series of judgments…) Also called.
It is also closely related to Inference and its synonyms, Inference. It wishes to deduce unknown propositions from known propositions, in other words, to draw conclusions from certain propositions with logical progressions. For example, we know that wheat is nutritious and bread is made from wheat, from these propositions that we know to be true, we conclude that “bread is nutritious”; this is an argument. That’s why reasoning is also called reasoning. Logic is this science of reasoning. Whether a proposition is true or not is the business of science, not the business of logic. Logic cannot know whether a proposition is true, it just says, “If proposition A is true, then proposition B must be true too”, which is what reasoning is. Aristotle’s syllogism is such an argument. Reasoning is done by deduction and induction method. Reasoning is a rational operation. Therefore, reason has also been defined as the ability to reason. For example, the French philosopher Descartes (1596-1650) established his philosophy with reasoning.
According to Descartes, it is an earlier thought that creates a thought. So, the truth can be reached by meticulously chasing the sequence without mixing a false thought between the chain of thought. The great value of reasoning is that it imparts new knowledge and constitutes the higher sciences of the process of knowledge, such as theory and conjecture. The conclusion drawn in deductive reasoning is definite, in inductive reasoning it may be probable or wrong. German idealist Hegel, take the argument. He expressed it in the phrase Schluss, which also means his syllogism. As a matter of fact, Georges Noel (Paris 1897), who translated Hegel’s Logic into French, used the idiom of reasoning or syllogism (Fr. Raisonnement ou syllogisme) for Hegel’s expression. Hegel scorns reasoning and defines it as “arbitrarily drawing conclusions from arbitrary propositions”, replacing it with the dialectical method. According to Hegel, inference should not be arbitrary and accidental, but must be precise and necessary, which only the dialectical method provides. Just as Hegel placed reasoning on the dialectical method, Descartes and his follower Spinoza placed it on the geometric method. According to Descartes and Spinoza, philosophy should draw definite and necessary conclusions not by random reasoning, but by geometric method. However, reasoning, in its scientific use, does not yield arbitrary and accidental results. If men are mortal and Socrates is a man, it is certain and necessary that Socrates will also be mortal.