What is Art, What Does It Mean?

What is Art, What Does It Mean?

June 29, 2021 Off By Felso

Some of the information revealed by archaeological and anthropological studies show that human beings have produced artistic products since the early ages.

Are the hunting drawings made on the cave walls a kind of education, the first products of the art of painting, or are they different results achieved for another purpose? Although all these questions are open to interpretation, they may be an indication that artistic activities have continued since the past.

Art has been in a similar classification with science and technique for a long time. However, art has a meaning beyond the mastery that enables the change of objects, as in technique, and the purpose of knowing the consciousness, which tries to understand the existence, as in the sciences. Art requires, on the one hand, a technical skill and on the other hand, recognizing the assets. A painter must have technical skill in using the painting brush, as well as knowledge of colors. However, creativity and imagination are essential for the artist to create his work.

Art and craft are two activities that can be admired as a result. For this reason, it has sometimes been used synonymously in history. This is also true today. Important elements that distinguish art from craft; art is created for tastes rather than a practical benefit, even if imitations or similar ones are put forward, it is unique and original. Different types of art are gathered under the title of fine arts with these distinctions.

Art generally requires three elements to be considered together. These; the artist is the artistic product and the receiver (listening, reading, watching, etc.). Artist; He creates his work with a specific technique by synthesizing the processes of mind, sense and emotion. This creation; it is not to create from nothing, but to transform existing materials into new forms. Colors, sounds, words, etc. transforms into new forms with the touch of the artist. This new form is a work of art. Artwork; They are objects that the artist embodies his feelings and thoughts and opens to the sensory field. The buyer, on the other hand, turns to the artistic product with the criteria of taste. Although the buyer is a consumer against the artistic product, it has effects in the presentation of the artistic product.

Recipients are the artist’s “others”. Although the tastes of art lovers are not considered as a stand-alone criterion, they constitute an important factor that motivates artistic production. Different art perceptions have revealed different art theories. It is discussed under four headings: The reflective theory, which claims that art carries the existing and life directly to art; expressionist theory, which sees art as an activity in which feelings and thoughts are conveyed; The formalist theory, which says that colors and geometric shapes create an abstract expression, and the functionalist theory, which argues that art is the result of a social need.

Compiled by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology Lecture Notes for Year 1 “Introduction to Philosophy” and Year 3 “History of Contemporary Philosophy” (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook