What is Asset, What Does It Mean?July 2, 2021
The concept of existence is derived from an old Turkish word var. Its French and Italian counterparts are derived from the root es, meaning to be of the Indo-European language group. Skr. Asti and Yu. The words esti were formed and later La. The esse idiom was born. The meaning of existence in ancient Greek philosophy, Yu. It was expressed with the idioms to on and einai.
Understanding of Being in Antiquity
The philosopher who first used the term ‘being’ in the philosophical sense was Parmenides from Elea. His master, Xenphanes of Colophon, who opposed mythological polytheism, claimed that there was only one god and that he was motionless, always in the same state. Starting from this assumption of his master, Parmenides regarded monotheism (Yu. Eis theos) as being (Yu. Einai) and argued that only this was real and all changes were nothing but appearances. Being was one, so all multiplicities were nothing but appearances. Images are illusions, so changes and multiplicities were illusions. Being was one and unchangeable, so the changes and multiples, which were nothing but illusions, were peculiar to the existing (existing), which are also images and illusions. How sane; If the white flower, the white insect, the white stone, etc. were one and the same, then the being was one and the same in all existing. Here, the distinction between being (Fr. Etre, La. Esse) and existence (Fr. Existence, La. Existentia), which is the main thesis of metaphysics and idealism, begins with this argument of Parmenides.
According to Parmenides, white flower, white insect, white stone etc. they exist concretely; whereas intelligence does not exist anywhere and in time and is abstract. So is existence against those who have existence. That is, the real reality is not those that exist (i.e., those that have existence), but those that do not exist (i.e., existence). The origin of the metaphysical and idealistic nonsense that the existing does not actually exist, whereas the non-existent is real and exists, is this assumption of Parmenides.
With this assumption, Parmenides also put forward the second basic principle of metaphysics and idealism that has persisted until today: We perceive changes and multiplicities, which are not real but images, with our senses, and we grasp the unchanging and unique reality with our minds because we cannot sense it. So the senses are deceiving and the real truth is that which is grasped not by the senses but by thought and reason.
However, Parmenides breaks a pot that metaphysics and idealism can never forgive; He claims that existence is in the form of a circle and has a place in space. This is plainly to say that being is material. This is why metaphysicians and idealists find him “primitive and vulgar”, while freshening up and babbling on his arguments. As we will see below, Plato, the second great thinker of metaphysics and idealism, will break the same pot.
Plato, too, is of the opinion that the senses give us no information and that knowledge is purely conceptual, that is, rational. “We say I’m cold, what does it mean to be cold? It can only be protected from heat, itching, redness, etc. we can separate; In other words, we can know to the extent that we can classify it with many concepts. What else is cold? We must realize that the cold is our own body, our own body from other bodies, animals, plants, etc. we can separate; In other words, we can know to the extent that we can classify it with many concepts. This means that our senses do not inform us of what is cold or what is cold. We learn this knowledge conceptually, that is, rationally. The truth, then, is not the individual, but the universal; in other words, it is not existing, but nonexistent. Plato gives the name Idea to this fact that does not exist individually (existence) although it exists universally (being). However, he repeats the pot that Parmenides broke, arguing that the ideas live in a universe of ideas (i.e., in a certain place) and that the ascended souls can go and see them. Moreover, he admits the existence of an object he calls matter. Actually, Plato has to admit this. Because in order for individual existences to come into existence in accordance with the non-existent idea, there must be a formless raw material that the idea can shape. Metaphysicians and idealists do not forgive these pots that Plato broke, and accuse him of reducing existence to existence (Because ideas must exist in an existence, since they are in a certain place and can be seen), and failing to understand that matter is also a universal. As we will see below, Aristotle, the third great thinker of metaphysics and idealism, will break the same pot.
Aristotle delights metaphysicians and idealists by opposing his teacher, Plato, by arguing that universals cannot exist. White, white flower, white beetle, white stone, etc. has. Other than that, there is no such thing as wisdom. According to Aristotle, only the universal is real, but the real universals do not exist; beings are individual, not universal. But Aristotle