What Is Assumption, What Does It Mean?July 2, 2021
Theoretical proposition that needs to be verified by practice. Science has developed as assumptions intuited from practical verification lead to new experiments. Any assumption becomes reality and validity by being verified with practice. Scientific assumption is based on a proven set of facts, is in harmony with all other existing scientific facts, and can never contradict scientific knowledge that has been confirmed to be true. If it does not have these qualities, it is not a scientific assumption anyway. The necessary conditions or information for the verification of a hypothesis may not be ready yet, in which case scientific effort is directed towards preparing the necessary conditions for the verification of that assumption. Assumptions that have not been confirmed yet, but can be verified when the necessary conditions and information are prepared, are evaluated and based on scientific conclusions previously obtained.
Assumption statement, as a logic term, expresses the proposition which is accepted as the opposite of conclusion statement, especially in mathematics. In the experimental sciences it states the currently accepted proposition in connection with the control of experiment. In the experimental sciences, scientists have to start from a hypothesis to begin their research. Because, in order to achieve the desired result, it is necessary to have the preliminary designs of that result. In the experimental sciences, assumptions can be deduced in a variety of ways. For example, Kepler made his assumption that the orbit of the star Mars is elliptical while observing the star Mars (planet N.). Claude Bernard had deduced from his experiments the assumption that curare substance poisoned the living organism and killed it. It is said that Archimedes (Archimedes) sensed the assumption that an object in the water would lose its own weight as much as the volume (volume N.) of the water displaced, from the bowl dipped in the water while bathing in the bath. While doing experiments (experiments N.) on certain microbes, Fleming accidentally saw that there were no microbes in a moldy tube and made his assumption that moldy penicillin killed microbes. However, as can be seen, even intuitions and coincidences emerged during scientific studies and are the product of scientific studies. In some places even false assumptions are useful, and correct assumptions are obtained by excluding false assumptions. As seen in the examples above, hypotheses are always derived from real events, and are not fictitious like the supernatural assumptions of metaphysicians and idealists. Therefore, the assumption is also called scientific prediction.
In the information process, first of all, intellectual concepts are formed. From these concepts, judgments and reasonings are derived. The complex association of concepts, judgments, and reasoning creates assumptions and theories, which are the highest levels of knowledge. Assumptions, which are clues to the laws, are verified by experiment, that is, by practice. Because the only infallible criterion of truth is practice. Assumptions, when verified by practice, are called theory, that is, scientific law. While some assumptions are denied, others are included among the valuable scientific findings of the sciences. Scientific knowledge thus increases and leads to new assumptions.