What is Axiology, Philosophy of Values?June 26, 2021
It is the discipline of philosophy that deals with values such as good or bad, beautiful or ugly that science does not deal with, and is generally called “philosophy of values” or “axiology”.
The first of these two pairs of concepts is the special interest of “moral philosophy” (ethics), and the other is the special interest of “philosophy of art” (aesthetics). In fact, in accordance with Aristotle’s rightful warning, we can call “political philosophy” the discipline of philosophy that deals with “good or bad”, that is, good or bad administration, in the plan of the individual and the political regime. Again, we can count philosophy of science and philosophy of religion within the discipline of philosophy of values.
Philosophy of values or axiology is the thinking and questioning of human beings, who are the only beings who live their lives by using criteria such as right – wrong, good – bad, freedom – bondage, happiness – unhappiness. For this reason, the behaviors that people do and exhibit are questioned in this field in terms of ethics (morality) and aesthetics.
Main Problems of the Philosophy of Values
What is valuable?
What is the source of values?
Is the value absolute or does it vary with the environment?
What is virtue?
What is morality?
If we talk in this context, Socrates argued that the basis of morality is knowledge, right knowledge leads people to right action, and ignorance leads to wrong. In Farabi, the aim of morality is happiness; Good morals make a person happy both in this world and in the hereafter. This is how many philosophers have made their own definitions of happiness and well-being.
As a value research, axiology seeks an answer to the relationship between what is and what should be. Discusses the nature, scale and metaphysical status of Value.
The term axiology means the science of values and especially the philosophy of values. The philosophical school on this subject was founded by Wilhelm Windelband in Baade and his disciples Rickert, Tröltsch; It was popularized by Bauch. In France, L. Lavelle, Polin, Cesari and Ruyer made various comments on this issue.
According to Windelband, historical events cannot be enacted, but they can be evaluated. This assessment is only based on people.
There are always human values in the philosophy of history. Every new age is a struggle to get rid of the values of the previous age, so human life is a life of constant struggle for values. His audience, Heinrich Rickert (1863-1936), also agrees with Windelband’s view.
Axiology, which finds its source in Kant’s philosophy, is against ontology and sensationalism. Because, according to axiology, the source of knowledge is neither in the senses nor in the beings themselves. This source is the capture of the relationship between facts and an absolute ideal that is set as a value.
Such a relationship established with values will enable to judge, to know, to recognize a fact, an object, an act, an idea and a word, and to evaluate them.
These philosophers, who did not distinguish a value judgment from a fact judgment, could not get rid of subjectivism in the choice of values and fell into a rather arbitrary voluntarism.
According to them, to seek the truth is to catch it as it is through the act of will, to evaluate it and to approve it. In its current sense, axiology refers to all kinds of reflections on values.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer Yıldırım
Source: Prof. Dr. Ahmet Arslan – Introduction to Philosophy Book