What Is Conflict, What Does It Mean?July 1, 2021
The contradiction to which reason must fall if it wishes to analyze the absolute.
The term Kant is derived from the Greek word antinomia, meaning contradiction between laws. According to the German thinker Kant, all propositions in the field of absolute are contradictory, because since these propositions cannot be tested, their counterparts can be put forward with the same force. For example, one might say “The Universe is finite” versus “The Universe is unlimited” and neither of these can be proven empirically. Cosmological proofs based on puns can be put forward with the same force for both opposing propositions. Since Kant ascribed a certain unknowability to the subject as well as to the object, he called such cosmological propositions ‘the contradictions of pure reason’ and grouped them into four main antinomies. According to Kant, there are four cosmological ideas that give rise to antinomy:
1. The antinomy of quantity “The Universe is limited-The Universe is unlimited”,
2. Qualitative antithesis “Matter is made of indivisible atoms-Matter is infinitely divisible”,
3. Relation antinomy “Everything is necessarily related—Nothing is necessarily related, there are free causes”,
4. Modality antinomy “There is a necessary being that is the cause of the universe – the cause of the universe is not a necessary being”…
According to Kant, since the intellect cannot exceed the limits of sensory experience, the antithesis of such propositions that are outside of the sensory experience can be proved with the same certainty (as a matter of fact, Kant attempted to prove them at length), in this case both the thesis and the antithesis must be considered true, which is a contradiction. .
Contradictions were also known to ancient Greek thinkers such as Zeno of Elea, Plato, Aristotle. Zeno called them ‘apriori’, meaning ‘dead end’. BC In the 4th century, Eubulides of Miletus put forward the proposition “This sentence is false” as an example. If this statement is true, it must be accepted that its content is false, and if it is false, its content must be considered true, which means to consider a sentence both true and false, in other words, falling into antinomy.
Contemporary semanticists try to analyze similar antinomies.
The conflict of these arguments and counter-arguments, which are considered to be contradictory because they make the reasoning contradictory, arises from the fact that they are not formulated completely and correctly. Logical conflicts outside of word games, such as Zeno’s famous dilemmas, can be easily resolved by expressing them fully and accurately. Kant’s mistake in this regard was that he considered propositions such as “God exists” or “God does not exist” as demonstrable, in fact there is neither such an argument nor such an antithesis in the process of knowledge.