What is Confucianism (Confucianism)?June 27, 2021
Confucianism or Confucianism is a system of thought created by Confucius, one of the great scholars of the history of thought. Confucianism is one of the indigenous, national religions in China and is named after the great Chinese philosopher Confucius. Confucianism or Confucianism is also a moral system based on this religion existing in China.
The Confucian system of thought was discussed and banned during the warring states period. This system was implemented as a political system by Emperor Han Wudi to rule the Chinese state during the long-lived Qin Dynasty. Despite losing its power during the Tang Dynasty, Confucian doctrine remained the mainstream of Orthodox China well into the 20th century. It was written against by the radical Chinese thinkers of the 20th century, the pioneer of modernism, and it was claimed that it prevented China’s modernization. This movement reached its zenith during the Cultural Revolution in the People’s Republic of China, and this reborn idea began to shine again.
Confucius brought together past experiences and religious ceremonies and examined all Chinese inscriptions to keep morals and traditions alive. Confucius thus aimed to create a Chinese culture connected to its past and history. He especially tried to explain the importance of this purpose to the students he developed and trained. After the death of Confucius, his students collected his thoughts and compiled them into a book. These books formed the foundational books of Confucianism.
Scriptures of Confucianism
Confucius, together with his students, tried to gather and review the writings of previous Chinese philosophers and scholars, especially by compiling information about administration, social life and ceremonies, and tried to maintain the living morals and traditions. In addition, his students also collected Confucius’ speeches, thus creating two collections of the sacred texts of Confucianism, known as the “five classics” (Wou King), and “four books” (Se Chou).
Confucianism is both a religious and a philosophical path.
The books that make up the five classics are:
Yi King (Book of Changes). Also known as Chou I. It is an ancient divination manual. The original part of the text is said to predate Confucius, to the early days of the Chou dynasty (1000 BC), and the comments on the text are attributed to Confucius. However, it is accepted that Yi King took its present form after a long development process. Yi King has been translated into numerous languages and is one of the best-known of the Chinese classics in Europe and America (DCR, p. 345).
That King (History book). The Shu King, also called ancient documents (Shang Shu), is China’s oldest history book. It contains passages from speeches made by emperors from pre-Confucian times.
Shi King (Book of Poems). It is the oldest collection of Chinese poetry. It contains 305 poems that were popular during the Western Chou dynasty (1111-770 BC).
Li King (Book of Rites). It was probably written during the first Han dynasty. It consists of forty-six chapters. Some chapters are extremely important for the study of Confucianism. It has taken its place among the first-degree sacred texts of China, as it teaches the duties of everyone and especially the etiquette of the ruler. At the same time, the work, which is a book of rules written about worship, society and family relations, does not contain definite principles regarding religious beliefs. Li King is an influential guide to Chinese civilization and morality, and volumes of commentary have been produced about him over the centuries.
Ch’un Ch’iu (Spring and autumn documents). It is the first Confucian history and is said to have been compiled by Confucius himself in 480 BC in the state of Lu, the birthplace of Confucius. It covers the events of the twelve rulers who served in Lu between 722 and 481 BC; the work is a kind of vekāyi‘nâme of the province of Lu. Based on the author’s style that explains his moral judgment, it has been concluded that the text belongs to Confucius. This book, held in high esteem by the Chinese, is a benchmark for moral judgment in history and politics.
The names and features of the four books are as follows:
Lun Yu (Conversations). It is the main source of information about Confucius’ speeches, teachings and activities. It was probably compiled by his students in 400 BC, and its present form was taken after II. It has been the basis of education since the Sung dynasty. Only the one belonging to the province of Lu has survived to our time.
Tahsueh (Great knowledge). Tahsueh, which means “adult education”, covers eight centuries of basic documents on education in China. The source of the original text is unknown. According to tradition, it is attributed to Confucius’ student Tseng Ts’an (d. 436 [?]), also known as Tsengtzū, and is said to have included Confucius’ thoughts on education, ethics, and politics. Confucianists VIII. Since the 19th century, this text has been given special importance.