What is Dialectical Idealism? (Hegelian Idealism)July 1, 2021
Dialectical idealism is the process of change and development of thought and existence with triple steps (thesis – antithesis – synthesis); It is the name given to the change and progress of being with dialectical movement.
Dialectics and Idealism
Dialectic is one of the most important concepts that has taken place in the history of philosophy from the first period of Plato. Dialectic, which is used in the sense of dialogue in Plato, has entered into a conceptualization as “Hegelian dialectic” with German idealists and is also known as dialectical idealism.
Idealism, on the other hand, is the view that asserts that existence is in terms of ideas, thoughts and ideas. In this context, dialectical idealism says that thought, which is the main being, develops in triple steps, namely thesis, antithesis, synthesis or argument, counter-argument, synthesis. In that case, the process of change and development of thought and existence with triple steps; The name given to the change and progress of existence through dialectical movement is called dialectical idealism.
Hegel is the founding representative of the dialectical idealism movement.
Hegel and Dialectical Idealism
Hegel’s idealism is called dialectical idealism. Hegel argued that history and thought develop in a dialectical process, and that this process, which he considers valid for all fields from religion to politics, from logic to aesthetics, will end with the attainment of the Absolute Spirit or the mind (geist).
The essence of thought is that the truth can only be grasped as a whole. If dialectics is a metaphysical process in which all apparent differences are united, “absolute”, it is the one that gathers everything that exists.
The dialectical development process of being is the process of self-development and liberation of Geist, which Hegel calls spirit or mind, sometimes idea. In this process, the “idea” passes through the triple phase of the dialectic.
The Trinity of Dialectics
At the first stage, the “idea” is in itself and is still a possibility. It requires a second space for self-actualization, which is nature. But the “idea” falls into a situation contrary to its own essence in nature, it becomes alienated from itself. He can get rid of this anomaly in the third stage, the world of culture. In this third stage, freedom takes the place of necessity, which is the law that guides the “idea” in nature; Freedom is the realization of the spirit in and through some institutions above individuals, such as the state, art, philosophy, and religion. In this last stage, the spirit develops itself in three steps. The first step is the “subjective spirit” and the still unfinished idea in the life of individual people. The second step is the “objective spirit” and here it realizes itself as society, history as the state. The third step is the “absolute spirit”, where it reaches full consciousness and makes itself immortal with art, religion and philosophy.
Dialectical idealism, that is, Hegelian dialectics, deals with objects in their movement and changes, their mutual relations and interactions, in contrast to the “metaphysical” way of thinking, which abstracts objects and sees each one as units with unchanging properties. Everything is in a constant process of becoming and disappearing. Nothing is permanent in this process; everything changes and leaves its place to something else. All things contain contradictory aspects or aspects. The conflict between these aspects is the driving force of change and eventually causes things to change or disappear. Hegel sees change and development as an expression of the “absolute spirit” or idea embodied in nature and society.
Phenomenology of Spirit and Dialectical Idealism
It is not difficult to see that our age is an age of birth and transition to a new era. Spirit has broken with the world it has existed and imagined until now and carries the thought of burying it in the past. Now he is in the labor of his own transformation. To be sure, he is never at rest, but has always grasped the advancing motion. But just as the child’s first breath after a long restful feeding breaks the degree of that purely quantitative development – a qualitative leap and the child is born – so the spirit in its formation slowly and softly matures into its new form, dissolving the structure of its previous world piece by piece, and its shaking is in sporadic symptoms. it is perceived; The indifference and boredom that pervades the establishment, the vague premonition of an unknown, these are heralds of impending change. This gradual disintegration, which does not change the face of the whole, is interrupted by a sunrise that suddenly illuminates the form and structure of the new world like a lightning bolt.
… But this new world, like a newborn child, lacks complete actuality, and it is essential not to overlook it. The debut is only in its immediacy or concept. Just as the foundation of a building is laid, the concept of the whole that has been reached is not the whole itself. While we would like to see an oak in the strength of its trunk and the mass of its branches and leaves, we are not very pleased when we are shown an acorn instead. Likewise, science, the crown of a spirit world, is not complete in its beginning. The beginning of the new spirit