What is Empiricism, Empiricism, Empiricism?June 29, 2021
Empiricism is a philosophical term derived from the ancient Greek empeiria meaning “experience”, “experience”, “sense data”. In the most general sense, empiricism in philosophy is the theory of knowledge, which states that the source of all knowledge is experience; It is a doctrine of knowledge that asserts that the only source of human knowledge is experience.
Empiricism, which claims that the only source of knowledge is experience, argues that knowledge comes only from sensations and that knowledge cannot be obtained by any means other than experimentation. The argument that knowledge is based on sensations implies that there is no mastery or innate knowledge.
Here, empiricism is a system of philosophical thought that reduces the source and limits of knowledge to experience and experience, and accepts that no knowledge is innate in the human mind.
According to the empiricist movement, there is no innate knowledge in people’s minds. In other words, also called principles of logic or laws of thinking; principles of identity, non-contradiction, sufficient reason, impossibility of the third state; concepts in mathematics; idea of god etc. There is no innate information in people’s minds, including information such as The human mind is like an innate blank slate (tabula rasa).
Again, according to empiricism, we obtain all our knowledge through experiments and observations, through the senses. For example, a child may know through experimentation and observation that a stove or fire is hot and can harm him. In other words, the way to reach information is to have the experience directly related to that information.
Empiricism (empiricism, empiricism) is the philosophy that says that only experience is the source of our knowledge. According to empiricism, which argues that experience is the only source of our knowledge, all our knowledge comes from experience; there is nothing that does not come from instant experience.
Locke is the founder of empiricism in New Age philosophy. Its main representatives are F. Bacon, D. Hume, J. S. Mill.
What experimenters understand from experience is usually the experience realized through the sense organs.
Sense Organs Are Rivers That Feed The Brain
The most distinctive feature of empiricist thought is that it denies knowledge a priori (a prion) to experience. The empiricist view denies the existence of concepts that are thought to be possessed by the human mind without benefiting from experience. According to the advocates of empiricism, every concept that seems to be independent of experience can be reduced to other concepts acquired through experience.
Historical Development of Empiricism
We see the first and simplest form of empiricism in Epicurus, one of the ancient philosophers.
Epicurus said, “As a seal leaves its own traces on wax, things also leave certain traces on us.” He argued that the first source of knowledge is sense. According to him, it is not the senses that mislead us, but the judgments added and loaded by the mind to the content we obtain through the senses.
While the traces of the empiricism approach are traced back in the history of philosophy, it is seen that it extends from “Stoicism” to “Epicuroanism”, but this understanding is based in the most competent form in “English Empiricism” led by Locke, Berkeley and Hume.
In addition, “Associative Empiricism” put forward by David Hardey and Joseph Priestley corresponds to the next stage of empiricism, while “Logical Positivism” or “Logical Empiricism” developed by the thinkers of the Vienna Circle is the modern extension of empiricism in its latest form.
When we look at the history of philosophy, we can talk about many philosophers (for example, Francis Bacon) who tend to reduce knowledge to knowledge gained through experience, but it was John Locke who put empiricism in a systematic way.
Locke at first opposed Descartes’ view of “innate thoughts” (Lat. ideae innatru) and argued that the mind is like a blank sheet of paper (tabula rasa) and is filled with experience before entering into any experience.
After Locke, George Berkeley and David Hume also defended the empiricist theory of knowledge. XIX. In the 19th century, John Stuart Mill, in a way that his predecessors did not dare, suggested that mathematical and even logical knowledge are types of knowledge obtained by induction and experience.
Experimental views were also very popular and adopted by the philosophers of the Vienna Circle. However, after the 1950s, WV Quine’s critique of the presuppositions of empiricism in his article entitled Two Dogmas of Empiricism (1951) and Noam Chomsky’s Arjieets of the Theary of Syirtrix (1965) Empiricism has lost a lot of blood since it laid out its a priori foundations.
John Locke’s Understanding of Empiricism
John Locke is a classic example of an empiricist philosopher. Locke, in his book “An Essay on the Human Mind” on the nature and source of knowledge, likened the mind to “a white paper with no writing on it, no design”. So how does the mind acquire these designs and thoughts? Locke answers this question by saying “it comes from experiment”.