What Is Evolution, What Does It Mean?July 1, 2021
Don’t evolve. Heraclitus can be regarded as the father of evolution by saying that nothing stands still and is constantly changing. Moreover, Heraclitus did not content himself with merely putting forward change, but gave a developmental direction to this change by saying “many things and everything from one thing”.
Later, Empedocles also argued that life is a continuum of events that develop over time and that those who are not competent are turned into more competent. Aristotle, with the concept of ‘Entelecheia’, made the idea of developing towards this competence the basis of his philosophy. According to Aristotle, becoming takes place continuously from the bases to the superstructures, and the development towards perfection is inherent in the beginning of everything material and spiritual.
In his work named Researches on Animals, he states that there is a departure from the inanimate to the living; He says that from inanimate matter to living plant, from plant to animal, and from animal to human. Greek atomists also argued that surviving animal species were those that fit into the environment.
The metaphysical worldview has put forward various non-scientific theories of evolution to support theology. According to the common assumptions of all these non-scientific theories, there is not a progress in the universal formation, on the contrary, there is a regression. Everything is getting worse every moment and history is repeating itself. According to the common claims of these metaphysical assumptions that deny the idea of evolution, as well as those that submit to the idea of evolution (N., who had to accept it), the source of development is outside of matter and is ‘God’ expressed in various concepts.
From Heraclitus to dialectical philosophy, views inclined towards evolution have been put forward in various currents of thought. Nicolas de Cusa, Giordano Bruno, Bacon, Descartes, Leibniz, Kant, Fichte, Schelling, Diderot, Rousseau, etc. The works of such great thinkers bear traces of this fundamental truth of philosophy.
British philosopher Herbert Spencer, who developed Empedocles’ idea that ‘the incompetent ones are turned into more competent’, argued that one species developed by transforming into different species.
Evolution is the chief concept of the dialectical law. Dialectal and historical materialism is the science of the general laws of natural and social evolution. According to dialectical philosophy, the term evolution refers to the developmental process in which quantitative changes take place by leaps and bounds.
The source and performer of evolution are the oppositions in all natural and social phenomena.
Evolutionary development is not a shuttle movement in which everything turns into its opposite, as in Hegel’s philosophy, but a ‘spiral development’ movement that always takes place at a higher level. Evolution and revolution are two inextricably linked aspects of development. Evolution is a gradual and slow quantitative development, devoid of sudden leaps and new qualities. Revolution, on the other hand, is a rapid, spur-of-the-moment qualitative change that involves the complete transformation of the old into the new.