What Is Existence, What Does It Mean?July 2, 2021
Concrete forms of eternal and infinitely changing existence. 1. Metaphysics: Since the ancient Parmenides, the expression of existence (La. Existentia) expresses the individual and is opposed to the expression of being (La. Esse), which expresses the universal. The basic thesis of all idealism, from Parmenides to the present, is that existence is real and existence consists of an image. According to this unscientific thesis, existentials (i.e., individual ones) have no existence, while being (i.e., the universal) has no existence.
All that exists (whether it be a table, a stone, or a human being) is abstracted and reduced to a single and unchangeable being. For example, we say “this is a bird”, what is a bird? It is vertebrate, egg-laying, lunged, warm-blooded, feathered, winged, volatile, animal, etc… Let’s abstract the bird from all these qualities (i.e., from the concepts we attribute to it in order to distinguish it from all other objects and to express it), it is only one, the partner In other words, it is, that is, existence will remain. Abstract the table, the stone, the person, the donkey, whatever you want with a single word; It is the only and unchanging (common to all beings) being that will remain in the middle and has no existence. The statement of existence in metaphysical language; essence is opposed to the experiences of nothingness, possibility. P.442 See. Presence
2. Existentialism: The basic concept of existentialism, which is one of the typical examples of grouchy and unscientific philosophies of our age, is existence. Existentialism, according to existentialism, is the specific way of being of man.
According to the mystic Kierkegaard, who laid the foundations of existentialism, existence expresses the loneliness of man in the universe, independent of all other existences.
According to Martin Heidegger, who is regarded as the founder of existentialism, truly existence is only human and the essence (existence) of man is in his existence. Thus, by reducing existence to being (i.e. essence), Heidegger opens the door to one of the biggest mistakes of existentialism.
The French existentialist Sartre easily enters through this door and says that existence precedes existence. For him, existence is an infinitely free self-realization; that is to say, existence is an indeterminacy, man establishes his own existence, determines himself, becomes how he makes himself. Man is the one and only self-existing existence. All existences other than man are determined by an essence and cannot form themselves. For example, a pea is determined by a pea seed; a table is determined by the table design. In other words, peas, as the pea seed requires; the table becomes as required by the table design. It is only man who is not brought into existence after his essence has been determined or his existence has been conceived. Because, especially according to Sartre, the existence of man comes before his essence, man realizes his essence only by making himself into existence. See. Existentialism
3. Dialectical and historical materialism: According to dialectical and historical materialist philosophy, existence, matter and existence are its (being N.) infinitely diverse concrete forms. So the essence of existence is being. Existence expresses the existence of being in an infinite and unlimited variety. Just as there can be no existence without being, there can be no existence without existence. Neither existence outside of being nor being outside of existence can be conceived. Being is the most abstract concept that expresses existence. For example, in this sense it is said that “motion is a form of being”, which means “motion is the mode of existence of matter”, because matter exists in the state of motion. The term being in this sense should be carefully distinguished from the term existence. Existence can never be reduced to being. Because such a reduction leads to very erroneous results. Metaphysical and idealist teachings have fallen into many mistakes, either by keeping existence above existence or existence over existence. The unity of being and existence has been revealed in dialectical and historical materialist philosophy.