What is Existentialism, Existentialism?June 28, 2021
Existentialism or Existentialism, that emerged in France towards the end of the first half of the twentieth century, and that people can create their own values; It is a philosophy movement that argues that it can create its own existence and establish its own future.
Existentialism or Existentialism, in general, psychological and cultural movements; It is a philosophy movement that argues that it can exist with individual experiences.
It was thought that the union of virtuousness and scientific thought would not be sufficient to make sense of human existence, and therefore, the existing union was an advanced category (philosophical category) governed by real value judgments. Making sense of human creation is possible with this authentic reality, which is definitely mentioned.
Søren Kierkegaard is considered to be the first philosopher to adopt the understanding of existentialism.
Existentialism or Existentialism arose in the mid-19th century as a reaction against the dominant systematic philosophy.
Søren Kierkegaard is generally considered to be the first existentialist philosopher. In opposition to Hegelianism and Kantianism, Kierkegaard has an individual perspective. The view on the basis of his responsibility; It is based on the meaning of life, realistic analyzes of passion and sincerity.
Existentialism II. It gained popularity after the Second World War. In addition to philosophy, the movement also influenced theology, drama, painting, literature and psychology.
There are no generalized definitions in the definition of terms belonging to existential philosophy. The first important existentialist whose terms he created were accepted was Jean-Paul Sartre. Therefore, with the emergence of existentialism as a term, this trend has begun to be accepted by philosophers.
The thinker Steven Crowell said that for these reasons existentialism is relatively difficult to define. Instead of rejecting the systematic philosophy completely, he said that the best definition of the movement can be made within the framework of a general approach with a real systematic.
THE CENTER OF EXISTENTIALISM: “EXISTENCE PRIORS ESSENTIAL.”
“Existence precedes essence.” proposition is central to existentialism. This was seen as the most meaningful whole of individual understanding. The individual structure that develops out of the existence of the person is expressed with “o”. In this case, this structure that expresses otherness; It is defined as existence by including independent acts and a sense of responsibility.
Labels, roles, stereotypes, definitions or other prejudices act as a social mask on the basis of the person. The base that cannot be expressed in this structure constitutes the “essence”. What the individual’s life is and how it should be named constitutes the “true essence”.
Jean-Paul Sartre is one of the greatest existential philosophers.
Instead, the essence, which is considered arbitrary, was used in other definitions with the term “his”. Thus, the human being is perceived as a third person who decides on his own values and the meaning of his life and puts forth his will while doing these.
Although the introduction of this concept is based on Sartre, such views can also be found in thinkers such as Kierkegaard and Heidegger.
One of the greatest representatives of existentialism is Sartre. According to him, man has no predetermined essence (destiny). There is no power (God) to give this essence. In this case, man is completely free. A free person will also create his own essence and values. He will be what he wants to be.
A person whose moral behavior is not determined by a power will create his own moral values. Establishing these moral values is not a moral understanding that can cover everyone. So there is no universal morality.
FOUR BASIC IDEAS OF EXISTENTIALISM
Existence is always single and individual. This view is in contrast to forms of idealism that prioritize consciousness, spirit, reason, and thought.
Existence primarily includes the problem of existence and therefore includes the search for the meaning of Being.
Existence is a set of possibilities from which one can choose one. This view is the opposite of any determinism.
Existence is always a “existence in the world”, as the whole of possibilities in front of man consists of his relations with other people and objects. In other words, man is always in a concrete historical situation that limits and conditions his choice.
EXISTENCE – INTELLIGENCE RELATIONSHIP
The judgments that characterize the human existence as pitiful stem from an ancient myth that Platonism spreads over a wide area of acceptance. This is the myth of his fall from the intelligible world to the world of the senses, that is, from the world of essences to the world of existences.
Montaigne, who remains indifferent and neutral to the concepts of fall and sin, embraces existence “because it is bestowed upon him. For Leibniz, all existence is the opposite of fall; it is the choice of the possible versus the real.
Emphasizing strongly that it is better to exist, Leibniz in his Theodicee considers himself God’s advocate.