What Is Fallibility, What Does It Mean?June 26, 2021
According to Peirce’s approach, every metaphysical approach or system is observational, albeit to varying degrees.
Many of the problems and teachings traditionally covered by metaphysics will turn out to be meaningless if the pragmatic principle is properly applied. Philosophy, freed from such problems, includes a set of real problems to be solved, based on observation. One of them concerns the field of research that Peirce calls “phaneroscopy”. This is basically a description of the content of the experiment. What is important, however, is that it is not a description of a particular individual experience but, as Kant argues, a description of the structural characteristics of experience in general. For him, the phaneron is what the experimenters call the ide, while phaneroscopy is the description of it.
There must be groups for phaneroscopy so that they can be valid for every design, every phenomenon. Although the content of the experiment varies in every case, the groups that he requires are three according to Peirce. However, these three groups can be considered both sufficient and necessary for the interpretation of the phenomenon. He calls them “first place”, “second place” and “third place”. Primitiveness includes design or appearance qualities such as red, bitter, boring, solid. He should not consider properties as fundamental particulars. Because their interlocking with each other, or their being perceived one by one by being limited to each other, is entirely due to the fragmentary feature of the faculty of perception. If perception were not like this, attributes would form a continuous system without interruptions and boundaries.
‘Secondism’ contains the reality of the phenomenal experience. Facts are particular, salient, and actual, while qualities are general in their primordial position, and therefore slippery and potential. The matter grasped in perception is an example of this. The “Third” expresses the laws to which objects obey. Therefore, instead of being limited only to existing objects, it also includes possible objects.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Omer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Sociology Department 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook