What Is Fascism, What Does It Mean?

What Is Fascism, What Does It Mean?

June 28, 2021 Off By Felso

Fascism took the form of official ideology during Mussolini’s rule, after Mussolini’s seizure of power in Italy in 1922. It is a general ideology and management system that has turned into a description describing the oppressive, authoritarian regime understanding in general terms, first in Italy, then in Germany, and after its disappearance in 1945 and its negative effects were understood all over the world.

Fascism has also become a general name given by the people to all of the anti-democratic ideology and administrative systems, especially Nazism, which Adolf Hitler implemented in Germany between 1933-1945.

Fascism was evaluated in terms of the results it had in the societies in which it was applied and became the cursed ideology of the 20th century.


The word origin of fascism comes from the Latin word ‘fasces’, which is the name of a bunch of sticks with an ax at the end, symbolizing the broad government authority of the Ancient Roman rulers (Arda 2003, p. 193). The same symbol was later used to represent the state power in the hands of the people, in the sense of ‘Enlightenment’ during the French Revolution.


The symbol in question has been the official state symbol of Italy since 1926 with some changes. The triple meaning of the symbol, namely state power, public ownership and unity, was used in Benito Mussolini’s political propaganda (ibid., p. 194).

Basic Characteristics of Fascism
The whole of social life is organized and determined according to the worldview of the state power holder, that is, according to the principle of the leader.
Press and broadcasting organizations are forced to broadcast in line with the current ideology, and the emergence of opinions and critical voices against the dominant view is prevented by various pressure elements. Offensive broadcasters are censored, shut down or otherwise attempted to be blocked. In this way, different ideas are prevented from appearing against the dominant thought, and a single type of thought is made dominant in the society.
Praise of nationalism and patriotism based on ethnicity and race is widespread, risking death for the sake of one’s homeland-nation-state is glorified, and certain people are heroized with these characteristics.
Arguments of superiority of the race or nation to which the society is accepted as a member over other races and nations are put forward and evidenced, and in this context, great importance is attached to history and historiography.
There is a definite opposition to communism, liberalism, democracy, and sometimes even capitalism.
It tends to rely on emotion, hatred, myths (myths) instead of reason and science in solving social problems, and is fed by an irrationalist philosophy.

In addition to these basic features, it is also known that fascist administrations attach importance to all kinds of state organization that will serve to destroy all individual and social formations that are likely to oppose the system of thought that has been made absolutely dominant in the society, such as military organization and intelligence, and that it legitimizes all such practices. is real.

In fact, the killing of people of race who are anti-regime or considered inferior by the state is one of the state policies that are justified and whose implementation is normalized in fascist regimes.

With such an ideology, it is impossible for the administration to comply under any circumstances with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted in 1948.

United Nations

But fascism, just like socialism, does not have a single application. For example, while racism did not come to the fore in Italian fascism, German fascism is based directly on the superior race or pure race view and a kind of Social Darwinism.

Social Darwinism bases its starting point on the view of natural selection advocated by the famous biologist Charles Darwin in his Origin of Species. According to this view, only the strong and resilient creatures will survive in nature. When this view is applied to social life, it turns into an understanding that the highest race rules those who are inferior to it and destroys those who resist this rule.

Again, the totalitarian government model, which is at the forefront in Italian and German fascisms, is not equally evident in Austrian and Spanish fascisms. Slobodan Milosevic, who started the war that resulted in the disintegration of Yugoslavia since 1991, emphasized religious hatred rather than race, and targeted Christian Serbs against Muslim Bosnians, who were actually Bosnian Serbs.

Fascism is a doomed ideology, not so much for its essential features and principles as for its practices in Italy and Germany, and for the great and long-lasting damage it has done to millions of people.

In fact, the results of the atomic bomb that the United States dropped on two Japanese cities (August 6, 1945 Hiroshima, August 9, 1945 Nagasaki) with a three-day interval to end the Second World War in a shorter time can still be observed today.

In this case, it is inevitable to ask such questions as:

“Is the ideology good or bad, and if so, how?”,
“What place do ideologies take in political life?