What is Freudianism?July 1, 2021
Freudianism is the psychiatry teaching of the Austrian philosopher and psychologist Sigmund Freud. Austrian Doctor Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) founded psychiatry by arguing that the soul and consciousness are separate things and that they cannot be reduced to each other. This understanding has also been the main motto of the Freudian movement. It is also known as Fröydcülük in Turkish.
Until Freud, neurosis and similar diseases were considered a consciousness and therefore a mental illness. By showing that these two fields are separate from each other, Freud made a connection between medicine and philosophy. Freud distinguished three psychic regions in man:
The impersonal realm where impersonal needs fight for their satisfaction
The self-region, which fulfills the task of adapting to the realities experienced,
The oppositional supra-ego region that prevents the fulfillment of needs…
For Freud, every neurosis was a return to childhood that was incompatible with the adult’s life. The childhood to be returned has been forgotten. The doctor’s help is to ensure that this forgotten childhood is remembered. When the patient remembers this forgotten; consciousness will immediately seize it, take it under its control, give it direction. Freud described this in one of his speeches at the University of Vienna in 1909:
“Now while I am speaking here, if a rude person tries to make a noise in the audience, a few decent ones among you will grab him by the arm and throw him out. But that rude person will also make noise outside the door and disturb us (Freud uses it to mean sick). We let him sit down after we let him in and make him promise not to be rude. That’s the psychoanalytic method.”
Psychoanalysis is a Freudian method.
According to Freud, if we cannot put the sick memories under the control of the consciousness, the neurotic state turns into a schizophrenic state, which will lead to a complete disconnection with the impersonal region, and on the other hand, to dreams that fulfill the state of concealing and falsely satisfying the need that caused the illness.
The method of psychoanalysis, which aims to ensure remembering, is based on the patient’s free speech to the doctor, leaving his thoughts unattended.
According to Freud, two instincts govern man: the instincts of protection and sexuality. The instinct of protection has lost its importance at the level of civilization, the only instinct that matters today is the sexual instinct. These instincts are born with man. It is because of this sexual pleasure that the baby sucks his thumb. The child who is born wishes to return to the womb from which he came out, and he has a grudge against his father who prevents this (Oedipus complex). This desire is normally resolved with the onset of the adult’s sexual life. If not resolved, the childhood state continues in the impersonal unconscious zone and gives rise to neurosis. Neurosis can only be relieved by withdrawing into consciousness and putting it under its control. According to Freud, the control of consciousness occurs in three ways:
Some patients realize that they are harming their health by suppressing these desires and they tend to satisfy their wishes.
Some patients turn their desires to a higher purpose and thus become ejaculated.
Some patients, seeing the inappropriateness of their wishes more clearly, substitute their bright thoughts for the disease-causing resistance of oppression and give up their wishes.
Freud ends his speech at the University of Vienna with these words:
“We must not underestimate the animality of our nature altogether. For our health, we need to satisfy some of our suppressed tendencies. Today’s civilization suppresses many trends. Translations into higher goals are not always enough. Just as not all of the heat given to a machine is converted into power, so not all of our inclinations can be translated into higher ends. I will say to those who wonder why the horse, whose feed is reduced a little more every day, finally died, this horse died of hunger.”
FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES OF FREUDCULUK
Freud’s doctrine, in fact, contains all the fallacies of metaphysical one-sidedness. He attributes mental uneasiness or illness to the only reason, the unsatisfied sexual desires. It assumes that an unproven subconscious mind and the unproven truth are hidden in this subconscious. It asserts that consciousness is governed by unconsciousness.
According to Freud, the psychic is fundamental, the physical or somatic (bodily) is secondary. The truth, however, is the opposite: the spiritual is not a specific principle but a product of the development of matter. Freud denied that mental activity could be studied by objective methods and developed a subjective theory. He separated mental activity from the objective and material conditions that brought it about.
According to Freud, all mental and social activity is the product of unconsciousness and is governed by sexual instincts. So science, art, historical events, in a word, everything was done unconsciously and with sexual instincts operating in the unconscious region. The bourgeoisie order, which tries to survive by taking shelter under the protection of metaphysical imagination, is eager to follow Freud’s doctrine because of all these unscientific