What Is Heat, What Does It Mean?July 1, 2021
A form of motion of matter. In physics, heat is defined by the term physical energy, which increases the temperature of an object. In the 19th century, heat was thought to be a fluid called calories. It was proved in the 19th century that heat, like light and electricity, is a substance, and thus one of the mysterious forces of idealism, which is unknown, entered the field of science. th. After the work of Rumford, Humphrey Davy, and Young, German scholar J. Robert Mayer in 1841 showed that kinetic energy (i.e. work) could be converted to heat and heat to kinetic energy. In 1857, the German scholar Helmholtz published the principle of preserving the energy.
Engels, one of the founders of dialectical materialism, says in his Dialectic of Nature: “The practical discovery of the transformation of mechanical motion into heat is so old that it can be traced back to the beginning of human history. The burning of a fire by friction is the first stage of people putting the inanimate nature force at their service for the first time” (İbid, Arif Gelen translation p 136). “The initial dominant form of motion of matter in different shaped beings (suns, planets and moons) is what we call heat” (Ibid, p.45)
The simplest form of motion is displacement, the highest form is thought. Among them is an endless variety of mechanical, physical, chemical, biological, etc. There are forms of motion. Every form of motion is transformed into a higher form of motion. Every higher form of motion contains a lower form of motion, but it cannot descend into that form again. The subjects of the various natural sciences are these various forms of motion of matter.
While describing the transition from quantity to quality from the dialectical laws of nature, Engels cites heat as an interesting example: “When we convert heat to mechanical motion or mechanical motion to heat, the quantity remains the same, although the quality changes. Very true. But the deformation of motion is like Heine’s flaws. Anyone can be virtuous in their own right, it takes two to commit wrongdoing. Similarly, the deformation of motion is always a process between at least two bodies. One of them loses a certain amount of motion of a quantity (i.e. heat), while the other gains the same amount of motion of that quality (mechanical motion, electricity, chemical dissolution). Here, then, quantity and quality are mutually compatible. Until now, it has not been demonstrated that it is possible to transform motion from one form to another in a single isolated body” (Ibid, p. 81).
The branch of physics that studies the motion of heat and its transition into other types of energy is called thermodynamics. There are two important principles of thermodynamics. The first principle is the application of the law of conservation of energy to the heat field, which expresses the equivalence of heat and work. The second principle states that heat cannot pass from a hot object to a cold object without a change in one of these objects.
R. Clausius and W. Thomson, who discovered the second principle of thermodynamics, misinterpreted it and applied it to the universe, and defended the inevitability of the thermal end of the universe. This is a false assertion and has been refuted by modern physics.
According to this argument, all forms of motion in the universe will turn into heat-motion form with entropy (the concept of R. Clausius expressing the variability of the energy), never to return to their former state, and an entropic equilibrium (the state in which all energy becomes heat in closed systems and enters into equilibrium and never changes again) ) will set up. This means the thermal end of the world.
Whereas, contemporary physics has shown that entropy is valid only in microscopic processes (N. in closed systems) and does not work in macroscopic processes (N., since open systems are necessarily open systems when full of open systems). This means that the universe will not come to an end in this way, as in all hypotheses. Because it is eternal, and it is also without first.