What Is Hegelianism, What Does It Mean?July 1, 2021
Hegelianism, also called the Hegelian School, is a philosophical movement that started after his death with Hegel’s teaching in particular and lasted until 1848, divided into different fractions as right Hegelism and left Hegelism, and in general, various Hegelian movements. (Alm. Hegelianismus, Fr. Hegelianisme, English Hegelionism.)
WHAT IS HEGELISM?
It is a philosophy movement formed by Hegel and his followers, especially determined by the understanding of “pure idealism” and “dialectical method”.
The Hegelian School was the most widespread school of philosophy in Germany between 1830-40. This was due to the fact that Hegel’s philosophy was a closed, logical system, and its method and principles could be applied to various branches. Immediately after Hegel’s death, the Hegelian school split in various directions. Especially Hegel’s lack of a definite stance on religion and politics led to the split of the school into two groups, the emergence of two groups as Right Hegelians and Left Hegelians.
In this context, while the defenders of the conservative Christian right wing were thinkers such as Gabler and Hinrich, the defenders of the left wing were names such as Richter, Ruge, Bruno Bauer, Strauss, Feuerbach and Marx. The left wing eventually united with the materialist movement with Strauss and Feuerbach; Along with Marx and Engels, Hegelianism became one of the fundamental elements of historical materialism.
WHAT IS THE NEW HEGELISM?
The movement that reconsidered Hegel’s thought in terms of dialectical method in the 20th century is called New Hegelianism. This current is often called “New Hegelianism”; It has become widespread not only in Germany, but also especially in France, England, Italy, Netherlands, Scandinavia, America and Russia. Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit (Phenomenelogie des Geistes) played an important role in the intellectual life of the young Marx along with his philosophical studies. Except for Germany, especially in France and Italy, the Hegel-Marx problem seems to be at the forefront today.
Hegelianism and German Idealism
Georg Wilhelm Hegel (1770-1831) is the last and greatest representative of the idealist movement in general and German idealism in particular. His doctrine is also called absolute thoughtism, however, he nevertheless developed an objective thoughtism, because this ‘absolute thought’ he put on the basis of the universe is a thought independent of human consciousness. It can rightly be called god, because he created the whole universe by becoming external and natural.
It can be said that Hegel said everything about dialectic, but he said it wrong. This is why it evokes admiration and surprise. For example, with dialectic, which is an endless process by its nature, Hegel concluded that the world and knowledge are finished and complete in terms of development. The wrong conclusions Hegel draws from the laws he puts right contradict themselves and contradict themselves. For example, contradiction, correctly regarded as the essence of dialectic in Hegel, incorrectly operates in logical, internal and evolutionary directions. On the contrary, the contradiction operates in historical, external and revolutionary directions. For example, opposites, which in Hegel correctly count as their contradictory power, are identical; whereas opposites are not identical, they are dependent and united, taking incompatible forms in the social process, etc. Hegelianism is a dreamer because it is based on speculative assumptions.
This dualism and contradictory attitude of Hegel is reflected in almost every aspect of his system. The revolutionary and conservative and reactionary aspects of his political thoughts, and the use of materialist elements to prove his thoughtfulness are the most obvious examples of this dualistic and contradictory attitude. Moreover, it is trying to realize the thoughtful unity in all this dualistic attitude.
Hegelianism and Ancient Philosophy
Hegelianism is based on the Elea School of the Ancient Greeks and the Plato-Aristotle who developed it. This is a reflective philosophy tradition that takes the idealist side in the basic problem of philosophy, which has always remained the same throughout history and repeated the same argument in various ways. The innovation that Hegel adds to this old and unchanging thesis consists in trying to prove it with materialist elements.
The Eleans claimed that there was a single and unchangeable being, that becoming, the result of multiplicity and changeability, was nothing but an imaginary appearance. The justification they relied on was the illusion of the sensuous and the reality of the rational.
Plato developed this argument with new interpretations. He had studied the sensation and concluded that it was far from reporting the truth. We were expressing even our crudest sensations with concepts. It wasn’t just a question of wording. We could not know the sensations of others, not even our own sensations, without making various rational classifications. When we said ‘I’m cold’, we knew that it was our own body that was cold because we could distinguish it from stones, plants, animals and other bodies, in other words, we could classify it with many concepts. We knew that our own body was cold because we could distinguish it from avoidances, blushes and warm-ups, in other words, we could classify it with many concepts. So knowledge was conceptual.
If concepts are your senses