What Is Heraclitus, What Does It Mean?July 1, 2021
Heraclitusism is the horse given to the teaching and understanding of philosophy of Heraclitus, the dialectician philosopher of the Ancient Age. Heraclitus of Ephesus is the brightest mind of Ancient Greek thought. The philosophy that is the product of this intelligence is called Heraclitus.
Heraclitus is the first philosopher to realize that motion and change are fundamental in natural and human structure, and the first to put forward dialectical thought. His work “About the Universe”, which he wrote in prose, of which 330 short fragments have survived, is accepted as the first real philosophical work.
Heraclitus openly asserted that neither gods nor men made the universe, and he said: “The world is one, created neither by a god nor by a man, but a living fire that burns according to a law and goes out according to a law, and has no beginning and end.” His philosophy is a purely flow doctrine. In this context, Heraclitus said, “The incomplete, unity and duality, agreement and disagreement, one thing from all things and everything from one thing…”
In the philosophy of Heraclitus, Logos means universal unity.
THE LOGOS CONCEPT FOR HERACLEITANISM
Heraclitus expresses this universal unity with the concept of ‘logos’; “logos is common to all people and to everything, it should conform to what is common. But although logos is common, the multitude lives as if they have thoughts of their own. Just as coals brought closer to the fire become different and ignited, and those removed from the fire become charred, so human beings share logos by following what is common. If he does not go after it, he will be without logos”.
The ‘war’ (Polemos) brings about the formation and change of beings, a conflict of opposites that are both conflicting and at the same time supporting each other; he says “war is the father of all things, it is necessary to know that war is common and for all, and that everything is according to fight and necessity” (the dialectical struggle of opposites should never be confused with social wars) (?N.) (Social wars are also included in the struggle of opposites N.) .
This occurrence is mandatory. In this necessary and continuous flow, ‘universal unity’ appears; It is the same thing as living and dead, awake and sleeping, young and old. Because when they change, they are others, and when others change, they are. Cold warms, hot cools, wet dries, dry moistens.
FIRST REASON FOR HERACLEITANISM, ARKHE THOUGHT
All these are changes of one and the same material basis, fire, everything that exists is its different manifestations; He says, “Fire creates the universe, the universe is and will always be a living fire.” With this word, he also explains that constantly moving and changing matter is always alive. Everything is always new; “The sun is new every day,” he says, “you can’t step into the same river twice.” This innovation consists of the constant changes of one and the same thing: “Death for souls is water, death for water is earth, if earth is water, water is spirit. One and common world for the awakened,” he says.
Being is inseparable from this perpetual motion, but only the wise can see this essence and truth, and the unwise are deceived by form and appearance: “The sea is the best and worst water, drinkable for fish and savior, undrinkable for man.” And the destroyer. Donkeys take straw instead of gold, pigs like rue more than pure water, oxen are lucky, when they find peas, poultry is bathed in dust. Stupid people always look at logos in bewilderment, dogs bark at strangers.”
Universal unity appears in a universal harmony (Yu. Harmonia), in an ongoing formation with conflicts and contradictions: “The most beautiful harmony among those who are against each other, go together, and separate from each other,” he says.
THE MOVEMENT VIEW OF THE HERACLEITANIAN APPROACH
Being is a constant movement in time: “There is nothing left where it is. Different waters always flow on those who enter the same rivers. We both enter and do not enter the same rivers, we are and we are not.” This is a pure and very clear understanding of dialectics. Heraclitus warns people against non-dialectic metaphysical teachings; “Homer is worthy of whipping, people are deceived like Homer, who knows appearances better than all the Hellenes. Knowing much does not teach wisdom, otherwise he would have taught Hesiod, Pythagoras, and also Xenophanes and Hekataios, Hesiod, who was the teacher of most of the day and night. He could not recognize that they are one and the same thing. Pythagoras has made more investigations and research than anyone else; do not know much, that is, do not play. Pytagoras is the head of lies.”
As it is seen, all the basic concepts of modern science and thought started from the brilliant insights of Heraclitus. Matter’s spontaneous mobility, motion and change are in a state of continuous formation by developing with conflicts, universal unity and dependence, necessary becoming, the universe consists of a material basis, in particular the opposition of form and appearance and reality, and in this opposition, essence and reality are the basis, etc. Heraclitus, the real father of the basic elements of today’s science and thought, such as