What is Human Rights, What are they?June 28, 2021
Human rights are often defined as the rights that a person has as a human being – simply because he is a member of the human species.
With this, it is tried to be emphasized that the social, cultural and racial-physical characteristics of the bearer of these rights, such as language, race, religion, gender, nationality, have no role in having these rights, and that individuals have these rights completely independent of these qualities. This is why human rights are said to be “universal”.
What is meant by “universality” is that human rights are valid in every culture or society, and that historical, social or cultural conditions are of no importance in the possession of human rights. It is a well-known and frequently repeated statement that human rights are the rights of all human beings, that no factors such as citizenship, religion, language, race, or gender are important in obtaining these rights, and that just being human is sufficient to have these rights.
This is also true when the rights in question are fundamental rights or human rights. But a glance at the ever-expanding lists of human rights will reveal that some rights force these limits or determination. While these lists are sometimes made so broadly that they include social, economic and cultural rights, individual rights as well as group rights in addition to fundamental rights; sometimes human rights are limited only to the right to life and some immunities; Sometimes, human rights are seen to consist of these, by bringing a few more basic rights such as freedom of thought and belief next to the right to life.
A more common practice is the tendency to regard the rights enshrined in international human rights instruments, particularly the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as “human rights”. The view that human rights are the rights included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the 1966 UN Conventions, and there is a consensus on this issue, ultimately becomes a tool that grounds these rights. According to some, the consensus on this issue is the only solid basis we have on what human rights are (Donnelly 2007, p. 24).
Wherever you look or whatever subject you deal with, a dimension related to human emerges and the concept of human rights gains importance with the coming of human to the agenda. The concept of human rights is based on the human phenomenon. Man exists as a living being, he is born, lives and dies. Humans naturally pass through the stages that all living things go through. The concept of human underlying human rights is not only human in the biological sense. The argument that human beings, as a rational, thinking and at the same time psychological being, have some innate rights just because they are human, has been the beginning of the idea of human rights.
Man is a product of social life as well as nature. Just as the coming together of people one by one created societies, these societies also created humans in today’s sense. Man has both a side that comes from nature and a side that comes from society. People generally gain meaning and personality with their dimensions coming from these two sources. The resources of nature and society, which make human beings human, are the most important indicators in determining the general dimensions of human rights.
Different definitions of human have been developed by each branch of science. Different aspects of every definition of human being are appropriate and true to reality. However, no definition has been able to provide an adequate explanation and reveal the human phenomenon in all its dimensions.
In attaining the present content of the concept of human, the search for some of the innate rights of the human and gaining these in time within the social reality have important functions. In the changing conditions of each period, people have tried to find their own personality and to prove what they like in social reality. The conditions of societies as well as periods have been different from each other and these have had certain effects on the concept of human and human rights.
The intellectual foundations of human rights date back to ancient times. The understanding of human rights, which started four hundred years ago, continues today. This quest is always towards the better, the more advanced, and the newer. As a matter of fact, in our age, new rights are constantly being added to the human rights determined by international declarations with contemporary documents and conventions. This war, which started with the desire to live like a human being, gradually led to the creation of an effective public opinion on human rights between individuals and internationally. This has caused the public to become more conscious and keep the human rights issue on the agenda. Universal human rights in the countries of the world; The public opinion greatly influenced the political regimes in the countries that tended to oppression and terrorism, and the leading institutions and segments of the civilized countries did not allow them to violate human rights by constantly controlling the oppression and terror regimes in the underdeveloped countries.
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