What is Idealism in the Philosophy of Being?June 28, 2021
It is a philosophical movement that defends the view that all kinds of existence exist in human thought.
Idea was the original form of all kinds of material beings and concepts in the world of ideas and in the human mind, in the philosophy of Plato. This concept was also used in later philosophers as thought, a type of thought, true concepts that are innate in our soul or mind.
Plato took the world of ideas as the real world, everything in the world of Being reaches material reality by taking a share from the world of ideas; but even though the matter was destroyed, the ideas continued to live.
The idea of the Idea also lived in medieval philosophers as the ideas that God created and governed beings and becoming in this world.
In Descartes, Locke and Hume, ideas were the correct representations of the world of being in human consciousness. This idealism, which was based on the projects that people created subjectively, separated ideas from the divine source and connected them to human psychology.
However, the concept of “idealism” was first used to name Berkeley’s philosophy in the mid-18th century. Berkeley was saying, “since we never know anything but our designs, why do we assume that they represent anything”. The existence of any thing consists of its perception and the fact that it is a design in the mind. To say that an object exists independently of consciousness is nonsense. The world of being is only what we can think and design. What we call nature or the universe consists of the whole of God’s perception.
One of the 17th century philosophers, Leibniz accepted the concept of “force” as the fundamental principle of the universe; He argued that the universe consisted of these energy units, which he called “monads”. These monads, which are capable of unlimited change, led him to an idealistic atomism.
Even though the most extreme form of idealism appeared in Berkeley, it was the German idealist philosophers, beginning with Kant in the 18th century, who made idealism a permanent school of philosophy.
According to Kant, though, there is a real object world independent of the human mind and thought. But we cannot know it in its true form. We only know what we perceive. We cannot perceive the essence (noumena) of the real world, we perceive only appearances (phenomenon). While perceiving, our sense organs, our categories of understanding and evaluation regulate both our perceptions and our knowledge. In knowledge, the inner world of a person is as effective as the outer world. Kant admits that the real world exists, but he was very idealistic about our knowing and knowing it.
According to Fichte, all our knowledge, be it form or content, comes out of our soul, our selves. The whole world of being is the product of the activity of the “I”. Fichte thus went back to Berkeley’s subjective idealism.
Finding Fichte’s idealism as “subjective”, Schelling linked the formation of the subject to the object, to nature. It was true that the world of being could only be recognized by mental and spiritual efforts and concepts. But nature and mind are one, real knowledge in nature and ideal knowledge in the human mind were compatible with each other (for this reason Schelling idealism is called “realist idealism”).
Hegel, following the line of Schelling, says that thought and being are the same thing. It is possible to arrive at the truth only by thought. Since the world of being and thinking are other embodiments of the same mind; Thought reaches the truth by feeding itself, without the need for external support or approval. Rather than leading us to the truth, the sensations linger with the multiplicity and division of the truth.
Source: Prof. Dr. Mustafa Ergün – Introduction to Philosophy – Philosophy of Being